Glossary of Intro. to Psychology
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- An excitation that travels along an axon at a constant speed. On-Off Switch.
- Action Potential
- Electrically excitable cells in the vervous system that function to process and transmit information.
- Chemicals that are used to relay, amplify, and modulate electrical signals between a neuron and another cell.
- A chemical naturally produced in the body. A neurotransmitter. Promotes activity levels and facilitates movement.
- Plays a role in sleep and mood changes.
- An inhibitory neurotransmitter found in the nervous system. Interferes with the process of memory formation.
- Includes the brain and spinal cord and it communicates with the rest of the body. Controls behavior.
- Central Nervous System
- Part of peripheral nervous system. Communicates with the skin and muscles.
- Somatic Nervous System
- Bundles of axons between the spinal cord and the rest of the body.
- Peripheral Nervous System
- 2 chains of neurons that cluster to the L & R of spinal cord. Responsible for fight or flight response.
- Sympathetic Nervous System.
- Axons extending from Medulla and spinal cord to neuron clusters near the internal organs. Decrease HR, promotes digestion, non-emergency functions.
- Parasympathetic Nervous System
- Chemical messenger from one cell to another produced in glands and released into the bloodstream.
- Middle of 3 vesicles that form the brain. Medulla and pons are located here.
- The Midbrain
- Regulates overall arousal of the brain.
- Reticular Formation
- Contains the Cerebellum.
- The Hindbrain
- Controls rapid sequences of actions such as dribbling a basketball. Sensory perception and motor output.
- Front most section of brain. Cerebral Cortex is located here.
- The Forebrain
- Outer surface of forebrain. 2 hemispheres L & R. Sensation and motor control of opposite side of body. Gray Matter
- Cerebral Cortex
- The sense of smell. Detection of chemicals dissolved in air.
- Intensity that an individual can detect a stimulus 50% of the time.
- Sensory Threshold
- The ability to detect sound.
- Ability to detect a flavor of food and other substances. Detects chemicals on the tongue.
- Sense of position and movement of the head and limbs relative to the trunk.
- An unpleasant sensation that sends messages to receptors to the spinal cord.
- A chemical that controls brain speed.
- Research Methods.
- 1) Develop Hypothesis.
2) Test Hypothesis.
3) Measure the outcome.
4) Develop Conclusions.
- Focuses on uncovering the underlying drives and motivations of people.
- Psychodynamic Approach.
- Focuses on consciousness, values, and abstract beliefs including spiritual experiences.
- Humanistic Psychology
- Focuses on thinking processes and acquiring knowledge.
- Cognitive Approach
- What individuals do as a result of consequences of post actions rather than what individuals think.
- Behavioral Approach
- Explain behaviors such as genetic factors that influence abnormal brain development.
- Biological Approach
- Founder of American Psychology.
- William James
- A tendency to experience unpleasant emotions easily. Ex. hostility. BIG FIVE
- Seeks stimulation and enjoys company of other people. Ex. happy people. BIG FIVE
- Compassionate toward others, not antagonistic, concerned about others, trusting. BIG FIVE
- Shows self-discipline, dutiful, strives for achievement. BIG FIVE
- Tendency to enjoy new experiences, open to new ideas, enjoys meeting new people. BIG FIVE
- People: Founder of Psychoanalysis. Stages of sexual development, personality structure, defense mechanisms.
- Sigmund Freud
- People: Collective Unconscious.
- Carl Jung
- People: Individual Psychology.
- Alfred Adler
- People: Self-actualization and self-concept.
- Carl Rogers
- People: Hierarchy of needs.
- Abraham Maslow
- Type of disorder: Anxiety, Depressed Mood.
- Adjustment Disorders
- Type of disorder: Agoraphobia, Generalized Anxiety, PTSD, OCD, Panic, Phobias.
- Anxiety Disorders
- Type of disorder: Amnesia, Fugue, Dissociate Identity Disorder (Multiple Personality), Depersonalization Disorder.
- Dissociative Disorders
- Type of disorder: Anorexia, Bulimia.
- Eating Disorders
- Type of disorder: Intermittent Explosive Disorder, Kleptomania, Pathological Gambling,
- Impulse-Control Disorders
- Type of disorder: Bipolar, Major Depressive Disorder, Cyclothymic, Dysthymic.
- Mood Disorders
- Type of disorder: Antisocial Personality, Borderline Personality, Narcissistic Personality.
- Personality Disorders
- Type of disorder: Schizophrenia,
Brief Psychotic, Delusional, Shared Psychotic.
- Psychotic Disorders
- Type of disorder:
Sexual Masochism,Sexual Sadism
- Sexual Disorders
- Type of disorder: Sleep Terror, Sleep Walking, Nightmare, Narcolepsy, Insomnia, Hypersomnia.
- Sleep Disorders
- Type of Disorder: Pain, Hypochondriasis, Conversion, Somatization, Body Dysmorphic.
- Somatoform Disorders
- Average of the scores. (sum of all scores divided by the total number of scores).
- Arrange all scores from highest to lowest and take the one in the middle.
- The most frequently occuring score.
- Providing reinforcement after a predetermined number of correct responses?
- Providing reinforcement after a variable number of correct responses?
- Reinforcement for the first response made after a specified time interval?
- Reinforced after a variable amount of time has lapsed?
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