Glossary of Intro. Psychology CLEP v2

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This group wanted to discover the basic elements of mental experience.
This group thought that understanding the mind meant understanding what the mind accomplished.
This group explained behavior in terms of learned responses to predictable patterns.
This group gives rewards and punishments.
Randomness allows groups to form with respect to the ___.
Dependent variable
The simplest cell is the ___.
According to this, threshold increases in proportion to the intensity of stimuli.
Weber's Law
The idea that the behavior of people who are hypnotized is controlled by normal processes is part of the theory that says hypnosis entails ___.
Role playing
On this schedule, a rat might receive a pellet of food for every sixth lever pressed.
Fixed ratio schedule
On this schedule, the average number of presses required for food would be six.
Variable ratio schedule
On this schedule, a food reinforcer would be delivered, say six seconds after the last.
Fixed interval schedule
On this schedule, the amount of time between getting a reinforcer and the next keeps changing.
Variable intervel schedule
The ability to learn by watching what happens to models.
Explains behavior in terms of factors inside a person.
Dispositional attributions
Nerves carried by the dorsal root which relay sensory impulses to the central nervous system.
Afferent nerves
Loss of the ability to express linguistic communications, resulting from cerebral damage.
A reflex present in the newborn child.
Babinski reflex
A theory of emotion that holds that bodily reaction and emotional experience occur simultaneously.
Cannon-Bard theory
A form of learning in which an originally neutral stimulus repeatedly paired with a reinforcer elicits a response.
Classical conditioning
An uncomfortable psychological conflict between beliefs and behavior.
Cognitive dissonance
The extent to which a particular item in a test is a true measure of some abstract trait that can only be verified indirectly.
Construct validity
A neurotic reaction which reduces anxiety by inactivation of part of the body.
Conversion reaction
Intelligence used in the application of already-learned materials which is usually considered to be rigid or unchanging.
Crystallized intelligence
Relative anonymity of individual characteristics and identifications in certain social situations such as mobs or crowds.
Theory of what causes schizophrenia.
Diathesis-stress theory
Guilford's term for the type of thinking that produces several different solutions for a problem.
Divergent thinking
Information stored briefly as an auditory image of a stimulus.
Echoic memory
Photographic memory.
Eidetic imagery
Intelligence that can adjust to new situations.
Fluid intelligence
The tendency, when rating an individual on one characteristic, to be influenced by another characteristic of his personality.
Halo effect
The effect on subjects' performance attributable to their knowledge that they are serving as experimental subjects or being treated in a special manner.
Hawthorne effect
A monocular depth cue in which one object appears closer to the viewer because it is partially blocks the view of another object.
A theory proposing that emotion-producing stimuli generate physical reactions, which are perceived as felt emotions.
James-Lange theory of emotions
The outer of the three bones in the middle ear that transmit vibrations from the eardrum to the cochlea. "Hammer"
The lowest and most posterior part of the brain, which is connected to the spinal cord.
A type of learning involving an increase in the probability of a response occuring as a result of the reinforcement.
Operant conditioning
Three tiny bones in the middle ear which transmit the sound vibrations from the eardrum.
Contains the somatic and autonomic systems.
Peripheral nervous system
The smallest unit of sound that has meaning in the language.
Time interval, usually following a response, during which almost no stimulus will produce another response.
Refractory period
Phenomenon in which the mere presence of other persons increases individual performance.
Social facilitation
A defense mechanism in which an acceptable activity is substituted for an unacceptable activity.
The notion that the mind is initially a "blank tablet" to be inscribed upon by experience.
Tabula rasa
A relatively unique pattern in behavior.
The assumption that the form of expression in a language directs the form of thought processes that develop.
Whorfian hypothesis
A statement that performance is a curvilinear function of arousal or motivation.
Yerkes-Dodson law
Theory of color vision, holding that there are 3 kinds of color receptors, and that any color experience involves a combination of these.
Young-Helmholtz theory
Involves transforming one form of energy into another form of energy.
Neurotransmitters are stored in ___ on the neuron's axon where they're released to signal adjacent cells.
Terminal buttons
A perceptual illusion, in which a disembodied perception of motion is produced by a succession of still images.
Phi phenomenon
Procedural memory.
Implicit memory
Involves being aware of what you know.
Explicit or declarative memory
Orientation involving self interest, obedience, and punishment.
Orientation involving accord, conformity, and authority maintaining.
Orientation involving social contract and ethics.
These effects have been demonstrated to exaggerate the inclinations of group members after a discussion.
Group polarization
The expression, happiness depends on doing better than we think other people are doing.
Relative-deprivation principle.

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