Glossary of IMA Ch. 2: The Nature of Sound

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What is amplitude?
It is the strenght of a wave, or amount of energy it carries.
What is the material through which sounds travels?
What is an area of higher-than normal air pressure?
What is an area of lower-than-normal air pressure?
What is the Eustachian Tube?
It is the passageway connecting the throat and sinuses with each inner ear.
What is the variations in air pressure which are ultimately translated into terms of electricity?
is the number of wave cycles passing a single point in a specific amount of time
How is sound customarily measured in quantity?
In cycles per second.
is when fruency changes are distinguished mentally as variations.
What is the universal unit of frequency meausured as?
Hertz (Hz)
How is Hertz (Hz) defined?
It is defined as one complete cycle (one full compression and rarfraction) per second.
What are some precision devices capable of documenting and detailing the frequency of perceived high- and low-pitched sounds.
Real-Time Analyzers (RTA)and Spectral Analyzers
is the strength of a wave, or amount of energy it carries.
A wave'sound level is measured with what?
Sound-Pressure Level(SPL)meter.
deciBle (dB):
is the universal unit of amplitude measurement.
denotes the physical length of the wave.
is the duration (time required) to complete one cycle of the wave.
What describes the actual contour of the wave when it is represented graphically in 2-D?
What are two very broad categories that can be used classify waveforms?
Simple and Complex
Complex waveforms contain many _______.
What are overtones?
They are variant mixtures of many related frequencies that are created simultaneously with a fundamental, base tone.
is a measure of the timing differentials among two reproductions of the same waveform.
What is an exponent?
It is the number pf times you have to muliply the foregoing number (called the base) by itself.
What is related to the exponent?
What are the two properties of sound that can be measured?
Frequency and Amplitude
True or False: Frequency and amplitude behave exponentially.
True or False: Frequencies can't be compare linearly.
What is a short definition of amplitude?
The measurement of loudness.
True of False: Amplitude can't be expressed exponentially.
What was the unit of amplitude orginally?
Bell, named for Alexander Graham Bell.
How many bell increments of soud levels are? Give the exact numbers it's through.
There are 15 bell increments of the sound levels. To be exact, it's 0-14.
an effect of two or more waves occupying the same space and time.
The energy remains present, but the two waves' effect the eardrum and are effectively negated, refers to ___________.
is the bouncing of waves that results off the surface of boundaries.
True or False: The harder the surface, the less sound absorbed by a given boundary and the more quently reflected.
Rooms with these types of barriers permit great sound reflectivity, and are known for this reason as __________.
Live Rooms.
Rooms configured for low reflection are, conversely, _________.
Dead Rooms.
Mutliple reflection from interactions with multiple boundaries are referred to as ________.
Sounds of a constant frequency reflecting off parallel walls often create a special case of interference called a _________.
Standing wave
A _________ is a place in a room where the source wave and its reflection are 180 degrees out-of-phase, creating a pocket of silence for that frequency.
An _________ is a place where the source wave and its reflection greatly reinforce each other because they are in-phase. As a result of this phenomenon, every seat in a concert hall is accoustically unique, and the most prime seating is in the positions
occurs when a wavelength of a particular frequency is reinforced by its own reflections (called resonating); rooms can "like" some frequencies better than others because some frequencies of a sound wave resonate and some cancel out, depending on frequency and phase (related to standing waves).
occurs when the energy of a sound wave is absorbed into a boundary and sets into motion.
is the bending of a waves around the edge of the barrier.
True or False: Loudness does not differ from one ear to another.
What are registered from the nominal timing delays, since sound waves hit one ear drum before reaching the other?
Phase Differences
When are hearing declines by age , what is it known as?
_____________ can occur due to disease, infection, or other physical element ailment.
Conductive Hearing Loss
What is the malady that the brain can prompt?
Central Hearing Loss
Temporary threshold shift:
is a temporary loss of hearing or ringing in the ear, that will eventually go, but will indicate that permanent damage has been done.
True or False: The tiny hairs in the cochlea are responsible for picking up the find sound detail.
Permanent Theshold Shift:
is when the damage of overexposure irreversibly reduces the range of frequencies the ear os equipped to receive.
Successive damage to the ears can cause enduring ringing or hissing is a condition know as what?
The frequency loss is first noticed in the mid-range between __________.
4 and 6 kHz and high frequencies.
What is the speed of sound?
11030 cycles per second.
What is the frequency range of human hearing?
20Hz - 20,000Hz, 2k-4k, (20,00Hz-4,000Hz senstive range)
What is the amplitude range of human hearing?
1/4dB - 140dB
What is the log of 10,000?
How many times more powerful is 80dB than 20dB?

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