Glossary of ID 6.10
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- Inflammation of the stomach and intestine
- Increase in number of stools w/decreased form
- (1) Electrolyte imbalance
(2) Osmotic factors (i.e. abnormal digestion, lactase insufficiency)
(3) Disorders of gut motility
- Viral Infections of the GI tract
(2 patterns of infection)
- Replication/disease in GI tract
Replication at GI but disease elsewhere
- What GI viral infections result in disseminated disease?
- Enteroviruses and adenoviruses
- What is the most common cause of severe diarrhea worldwide?
Bacterial infections become more important in developing countries
- Important GI-tract Viral Families
- "Cause poop to RACE through you"
(coltivirus, orthoreovirus, orbivirus, rotavirus)
Double layer capsid
Segmented dsRNA (enables reassortment)
Name origin: Respiratory/Enteric Portals with no-associative symptoms ("Orphan")
- Genera of Reoviridae (non-enveloped, dsRNA, double-layer capsid)
Most common origin of viral gastroenteritis
- 7 types based on VP6 (core) variation
A/B/C infect humans
Serotypes determined by outer capsid proteins (VP4/7)
- What antigen determines Rotavirus groups?
- VP6 (core) antigen
7 groups, A- G (but only A/B/C infect humans)
- What antigen(s) determines Rotavirus serotype?
- Group A Rotavirus
- Single most important agent of diarrhea in very young (>90% serotype (+) by 3!)
- Fecal-oral route (via fomites)
Short incubation period (2 days)
Virus shed in stool > week
Vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal cramping, fever, dehydration (may need to be rehospitalized for rehydration therapy)
- Rapid Antigen Test
ELISA stool/rectal swap
Detects VP6, group A variant
Vaccine? Earlier form pulled from market, new vaccine available for 6 - 32 week/old infants
- Of "RACE"
- Of Caliciviridae ((+)ssRNA, non-enveloped and cannot culture)
LEADING CAUSE OF ACUTE GASTROENTERITIS IN OLDER CHILDREN/ADULTS
- What is the leading cause of gastroenteritis in children? In adults?
- Children: rotavirus (of Reoviridae)
Adults: norovirus (of Caliciviridae)
- Transmission via contaminated food/water or person-to-person spread (aerosolized vomitus!)
(susceptibility to infection?)
- Strain-dependent binding to blood group antigens
(Spectrum of symptoms)
- Inocculate patients w/same virus and get a broad spectrum of symptoms
- Cause Gastroenteritis
(cause poop to RACE through you)
World-wide distribution (therefore, majority are sero (+) by 5)
Generally affects infants/young children and problem w/institutional outbreaks
- Enteric Adenoviruses
- Cause gastroenteritis (cause poop to RACE through you)
Non-enveloped, dsDNA (think, aDenoviruses)
Serotypes 40/41 associated with diarrhea
Longer incubation period (10 days)
- What are the two leading causes of gastroenteritis in infants?
- Rotavirus (of Reoviridae family) and Enteric Adenoviruses
- Which Enteric Adenoviral Serotypes are associated with diarrhea?
- Serotypes 40 and 41
- Oral Rehydration Therapy
(treating infants with serve dehydration). NOTE: the WHO makes distinct recommendations between world-wide vs. US ORT. Why? b/c the [salt] is TOO HIGH in the world solution
- Q: Why is American ORT different from world-wide ORT?
- The world solution has too much salt
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