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Glossary of Human Resource Mgmt 11th Ed. Chapter 4

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4/5ths rule
Discrimination exists if the selection rate for a protected group is less than 80% (4/5ths) of the selection rate for the majority group or less than 80% of the majority group’s representation in the relevant labor market.
Affirmative action
Employers are urged to hire groups of people based on their race, age, gender, or national origin, to make up for historical discrimination.
Blind to differences
Differences among people should be ignored and everyone should be treated equally.
Bona fide occupational qualification (BFOQ)
Characteristic providing a legitimate reason why an employer can exclude persons on otherwise illegal bases of consideration.
Burden of proof
What individuals who file suit against employers must prove in order to establish that illegal discrimination has occurred.
Business necessity
Practice necessary for safe and efficient organizational operations.
Concurrent validity
Measured when an employer tests current employees and correlates the scores with their performance ratings.
Content validity
Validity measured by a logical, non-statistical method to identify the KSAs and other characteristics necessary to perform a job.
Correlation coefficient
Index number giving the relationship between a predictor and a criterion variable.
Criterion-related validity
Validity measured by a procedure that uses a test as the predictor of how well an individual will perform on the job.
Disabled person
Someone who has a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits life activities, who has a record of such an impairment, or who is regarded as having such an impairment.
Disparate impact
Occurs when members of a protected class are substantially under-represented as a result of employment decisions that work to their disadvantage.
Disparate treatment
Occurs when members of a protected class are treated differently from others.
Employment “test”
Any employment procedure used as the basis for making an employment-related decision.
Equal employment
Employment that is not affected by illegal discrimination.
Essential job functions
Fundamental duties of a job.
Mediation
Dispute resolution process by which a third party helps negotiators reach a settlement.
Pay equity
Idea that pay for jobs requiring comparable levels of knowledge, skill, and ability should be similar, even if actual duties differ significantly.
Predictive validity
Measured when test results of applicants are compared with subsequent job performance.
Protected class
Individuals within a group identified for protection under equal employment laws and regulations.
Reasonable accommodation
A modification or adjustment to a job or work environment for a qualified individual with a disability.
Reliability
Consistency with which a test measures an item.
Retaliation
Punitive actions taken by employers against individuals who exercise their legal rights.
Sexual harassment
Actions that are sexually directed, are unwanted, and subject the worker to adverse employment conditions or create a hostile work environment.
Undue hardship
Significant difficulty or expense imposed on an employer in making an accommodation for individuals with disabilities.
Validity
Extent to which a test actually measures what it says it measures.

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