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Glossary of Human Resource Mgmt 11th Ed. Chapter 11

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Central tendency error
Occurs when a rater gives all employees a score within a narrow range in the middle of the scale.
Contrast error
Tendency to rate people relative to others rather than against performance standards.
Forced distribution
Performance appraisal method in which ratings of employees’ performance are distributed along a bell-shaped curve.
Graphic rating scale
Scale that allows the rater to mark an employee’s performance on a continuum.
Halo effect
Occurs when a rater scores an employee high on all job criteria because of performance in one area.
Job criteria
Important elements in a given job.
Leniency error
Occurs when ratings of all employees fall at the high end of the scale.
Management by objectives (MBO)
Performance appraisal method that specifies the performance goals that an individual and manager mutually identify.
Performance appraisal
Process of evaluating how well employees perform their jobs and then communicating that information to the employees.
Performance management
Composed of the processes used to identify, measure, communicate, develop, and reward employee performance.
Primacy effect
Occurs when a rater gives greater weight to information received first when appraising an individual’s performance.
Ranking
Performance appraisal method in which all employees are listed from highest to lowest in performance.
Rater bias
Occurs when a rater’s values or prejudices distort the rating.
Recency effect
Occurs when a rater gives greater weight to recent events when appraising an individual’s performance.
Strictness error
Occurs when ratings of all employees fall at the low end of the scale.

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