Glossary of Human Motor Development Ch2
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- SECONDARY SCHEMA
- • 8 to 12 mths
• Crawling and creeping begins
• Trial-and-error exploration.
• Can predict potential occurrences beyond their immediate activity. This is the onset of intellectual reasoning. Ex: as a baby rolls a ball away, they expect it to be rolled back to them.
- EXERCISE OF REFLEXES
- • Birth – 1 mths
• By accident or reflex, a baby may find its mouth. As a result of modifying the reflex, the infant may learn to find the mouth and suck his thumb.
- PRIMARY CIRCULAR REACTIONS
- • 1 to 4 mths
• Now the infant makes conscious efforts to repeat desired acts.
- SECONDARY CIRCULAR REACTIONS
- • 4 to 8 mths
• More enduring behavior intended to make an event lasting.
• Persistent shaking of a rattle or banging of a toy
• Imitation is a major characteristic of this stage.
• Still no sense of permanence. And if imitating, source of imitation has to be immediately present.
- TERTIARY CIRCULAR REACTIONS
- • 12 to 18 mths
• Discovery of new ways to get desired results through active experimentation.
• The discover of an object and the use of an object are separate entities.
o A baby knows that a ball can be played with. And even if it is not played with now, it can still be played with later.
• People become important in this stage.
o Distinguishing the self from others facilitates the development of the ability to create action through others. This is critical in developing socially.
- INVENTION OF NEW MEANS THROUGH MENTAL COMBINATIONS
- • 18 to 24 mths
• Metamorphosis from active involvement to reflection.
• The most important characteristic of this sub-stage is the ability to consider the self and an object in the past, present and future.
• Children can now recall an event without physically reenacting what happened.
• They can also ponder alternatives and predict potential outcomes.
- SUMMARY OF THE MAJOR DEVELOPMENTS IN THE SENSORIMOTOR STAGE.
- Increasing awareness of the difference b/t self and others.
Recognizing that objects continue to exist even if not seen.
Production of mental images allowing contemplation of the past, present and future
- adjusting past experiences to new ones
- using past knowledge to interpret new experiences
- CRITICISMS OF PIAGET
- o Lacked scientific evidence.
o There could have been bias since he was observing his own children.
o There was a significant portion of the lifespan unobserved.
o Underestimated children (hidden competencies)
o Did not discern between competency and performance. If a child did not do well it was because he was not competent. There was no account for emotional state.
o Too little emphasis on motivation and emotions.
o Stages were too broad.
o Did not clearly explain development. He did not explain how intellectual changes evolve.
- 4 DOMAINS OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
- o Cognitive
- SIX STAGES OF SENSORIMOTOR
- EXERCISE OF RELFEX
PRIMARY CIRCULAR REACTIONS
SECONDARY CIRCULAR REACTIONS
TERTIARY CIRCULAR REACTIONS
INVENTION OF NEW MEANS THRU MENTAL COMBINATIONS
- The child is unable to realize that characteristics remain the same even though the appearance changes. Ex: a ball of dough is squished. The child may believe the ball has more dough.
- Ability to arrange a set of variables by a certain characteristic.
- WESCHELER ADULT INTELLIGENCE SCALE: A SCALE THAT MEASURES 11 COMPONENTS OF INTELLECTUAL ABILITY: 6 VERBAL ABILITY AND 5 PERFORMANCE ABILITY
- CONTEXTUAL PERSPECTIVE
- THE IDEA THAT LEARNING AND MEMORY DEPEND ON FACTORS LIKE CULTURE
- IMPLICIT MEMORY
- EXPLICITY MEMORY
- DECLARATIVE KNOWLEDGE
- CAN BE VIEWED AS FACTUAL INFORMATION
- PROCEDURAL KNOWLEDGE
- CAN BE VIEWED AS HOW TO DO SOMETHING
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