Glossary of Human Geography 1-32

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the legal incorporation of some territory into another geo-political entity
Has territorial claims for seven countries. These claims have not been pressed because of the Antarctica Treaty of 1959. It has neither an established government nor a permanent population so it is not a state
system of racial segregation peculiar to the Republic of South Africa, the legal basis of which was largely repealed in 1991–92
the process of fragmentation or division of a region into smaller regions that are often hostile or non-cooperative with each other.
border landscape
- Features specific or particular to a region’s border with a neighbor, can consist of fences, large tracts of bare land etc. Topography of the area around the border of a territory.
boundary dispute- positional/definitional
when states disagree about the legal documents that define a boundary and/or the way it was delimited.
boundary dispute- territorial allocational
When each of the states has come justification for claim to ownership over the territory inhabited by the ethnic group in question
boundary dispute- resource/locational
when neighboring states want the same resources
boundary dispute- operational/functional
When neighboring states disagree over the policies to be applied along a boundary
boundary origin- antecedent
evolved and were defined before the present day human (political) landscape developed. Often the result of or influenced by natural barriers
boundary origin- subsequent
boundary drawn after the development of the cultural landscape
boundary origin- superimposed
a boundary forced on existing cultural landscapes, a country, or a people by a conquering of colonizing power that is unconcerned with preexisting cultural patterns
boundary origin- relic
a former boundary line that no longer functions as such is still marked by some landscape features of differences on the sides
boundary process- definition
- once a rough area has been determined, a treaty-like document is drawn up and signed by states.
boundary process- delimitation
cartographers put the boundary on a map
boundary process- demarcation
boundary is made visible
buffer state
a country lying between two rival or potentially hostile greater powers, which by its sheer existence is thought to prevent conflict between them
the principal city or town associated with its government. It is almost always the city which physically encompasses the offices and meeting places of the seat of government and fixed by law
city state
a region controlled exclusively by a city, and usually having sovereignty
conference of berlin (1884)
regulated European colonization and trade in Africa. Escalated the scramble of European powers to claim territory in Africa
core periphery model
A model of the spatial structure of an economic system in which underdeveloped or declining peripheral areas are defined with respect to their dependence on a dominating developed core region.
the process by which a colony gains its independence from a colonial power, a process opposite to colonization. Decolonization could be achieved by attaining independence, integrating with the administering power or another state, or establishing a "free association" status
the transfer of certain powers from the state central government to separate political subdivisions within the state’s territory
EEZ (exclusive economic zone)
up to 200 nm (370 km) in which the state has recognized rights to explore, exploit, conserve and manage the natural resources, both living and nonliving, of the seabed and water.
electoral geography
the analysis of how boundaries are drawn around voting districts
a small bit of foreign territory lying within a state but not under its jurisdiction
A part of a country that is isolated from the main part and is surrounded by foreign territory.
ethnic conflict
conflicts between ethnic groups often as a result of ethnic nationalism, frequently result in war crimes such as genocide
federal states
associations of more or less equal provinces or states with strong regional governmental responsibilities
forward thrust capital city
one that has been deliberately sited in a state’s interior to signal the government’s awareness of regions away from an off-center core and its interest in encouraging more uniform development.
global commons
Issues, often forces of nature or natural elements that are not singular to a specific region or territory. Ex) the ozone layer
immigrant states
formed as a result of an influx of immigrants to a certain area who then establish their own government
iron curtain
-a Western term referring to the boundary which symbolically, ideologically, and physically divided Europe into two separate areas from the end of World War II until the end of the Cold War, roughly 1945 to 1990.
centrifugal forces
forces that tend to divide a country
centripetal forces
forces that tend to unite or bind a country together
the expansion and perpetuation of an empire
a form of an international organization that brings several autonomous states together for a common purpose
domino theory
the idea that political destabalization in one country can lead to collapse of political stability in neighboring countries, starting a chain reaction of collapse
european union
international organization comprised of western european countries to promote free trade among members
an area where borders are shifting and weak and wher epeoples of different cultures or nationalities meet and lay claim to the land
the study of the interplay between political relations and the territorial context in which they occur
the designation of voting districts so as to favor a particular party or candidate
heartland theory
hypothesis by halform mackinder that held tha tany political power based in the heart of eurasia could gain enough strength to eventually dominate the world
international organization
an alliance of 2 or more countries seekeing cooperation with each other without giving up either's autonomy or self-determination

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