Glossary of Human Development Chapter 8
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- Developmental psychology
- The study of how humans grow, develop, and change throughout lifespan.
- Piaget's term for a cognitive structure or concept used to identify and interpret information.
- The process by which new objects, events, experiences, or information is incorporated into existing schemes.
- The process by which existing schemes are created to incorporate new objects, events, experiences, or information.
- object permanence
- The realization that objects continue to exist, even when they can no longer be perceived.
- symbolic function
- The understanding that one thing-an object, a word, a drawing- can stand for another.
- The concept that a given quantity of matter remains the same despite being rearranged or changed in appearance, as long as nothing is added or taken away.
- The realization that any change in the shape, position, or order of matter can be reversed mentally.
- hypothetico-deductive thinking
- The ability to base logical reasoning on a hypothetical premise.
- Piaget's first stage of Cognitive Development
- (age birth to 2 years) infants gain an understanding of their world through there senses and their motor activites.
- Piaget's second stage of Cognitive Development
- (age 2 to 7 years) The understanding that one thing can stand for another. Can be displayed through the use of words to represent objects and through pretend play.
- Piaget's third stage of Cognitive Development
concrete operations stage
- (age 7 to 11 or 12 years) New schemes allow children to understand both conservation and reversibility. Unable to apply logic to hypothetical situations.
- Piaget's fourth stage of Cognitive Development
formal operations stage
- (age 11 to 12 years and beyond) preadolescents and adolescents can apply logical thought to abstract, verbal, and hypothetical situations and to problems in the past, present, or future (hypothetico-deductive thinking)
- zone of proximal developement
- According to Vygotsky this is the range of cognitive tasks that a child cannot yet do but can learn to do through the guidance of an older child or adult.
- A type of instruction in which an adult adjusts the amount of guidance provided to match a child's present level of ability.
- preconventional level
- Kohlberg's lowest level of moral development, in which moral reasoning is based on the physical consequences of an act; "right" is whatever avoids punishmentor gains a reward.
- conventional level
- Kohlberg's second level of moral development, in which right and wrong are based on the internalized standards of others; "right" is whatever helps or is approved of by others, or whatever is consistent with the laws of society.
- postconventional level
- Kohlberg's highest level of moral development, in which moral reasoning involves weighing moral alternatives; "right" is whatever furthers basic human rights.
- Kohlberg's Stage 1 of Moral Development
- The stage in which behavior that avoids punishment is right. Children obey out of fear of punishment.
- Kohlberg's Stage 2 of Moral Development
- The stage of self interest. What is right is what benefits the individual or gains a favor in return.
- Kohlberg's Stage 3 of Moral Development
- The morality of mutual relationships. The "good boy-nice girl" orientation. Child acts to please and help others.
- Kohlberg's Stage 4 of Moral Development
- The morality of the social system and conscience. Orientation toward authority. Morality is doing one's duty, respecting authority, and maintaining the social order.
- Kohlberg's Stage 5 of Moral Development
- The morality of contract; respect for individual rights and laws that are democratically agreed on. Rational valuing of the wishes of the majority and the general welfare. Belief that society is best served if citizens obey the law.
- Kohlberg's Stage 6 of Moral Development
- The highest stage of the highest social level. The morality of universal ethical principles. The person acts according to internal standards independent of legal restrictions or opinions of others.
- prenatal development
- Development from conception to birth
- Cell that results from the union of a sperm and an ovum.
- The developing human organism during the period (week 3 through week 8) when the major systems, organs, and structures of the body develop.
- The developing human organism during the period (week 9 until birth) when rapid growth and further development of the structures, organs, and systems of the body occur.
- Harmful agents in the prenatal environment, which can have a negative impact on prenatal development or even cause birth defects.
- critical period
- A period so important to development that a harmful environmental influence at that time can keep a bodily structure from developing normally or can impair later intellectual or social development.
- fetal alcohol syndrome
- A condition, caused by maternal alcohol intale during pregnancy, in which the baby is born mentally retarded, with a small head and facial, organ, and behavioral abnormalities.
- A person's behavioral style or characteristic way of responding to the environment.
- The strong affectionate bond a child forms with the mother or primary caregiver.
- seperation anxiety
- The fear and distress shown by a toddler when the parent leaves, occuring from 8 to 24 months and reaching a peak between 12-18 months.
- stranger anxiety
- A fear of strangers common in infants at about 6 months and increasing in intensity until about 12 months, and then declining in the second year.
- secure attachment
- Eagerly seek to reestablish the connection and then show an interest in play. Use mother as a safe base.
- avoidant attachment
- Not responsive to their mother when she is present and not troubled when she leaves. May avoid contact when mother returns.
- resistant attachment
- Child prefers close contact with their mother. When the mother returns to the child after a period of seperation, the child displays anger and either push her away or hit her.
- disorganized/disoriented attachment
- When reunited with their mother the infant may purposely look away from their mother or approach her expressionless.
- The process of learning socially acceptable behaviors, attitudes, and values.
- authoritarian parents
- Parents who make arbitrary rules, expect unquestioned obedience from their children, punish trangressions, and value obedience to authority.
- authoritative parents
- Parents who set high but realistic standards, reason with the child, eforce limits, and encourage open communication and independence.
- permissive parents
- Parents who make few rules or demands and allow children to make their own decisions and control their own behavior.
- gender roles
- Cultural expectations about the behavioral appropriate for each gender.
- The developmental stage that begins at puberty and encompasses the period from the end of childhood to the beginning of adulthood.
- A period of rapid physical growth and change that culminates in sexual maturity.
- seconday sexual characteristics
- Those physical characteristics that are not directly involved in reproduction but distinguish the mature male from the mature female.
- The onset of menstration.
- crystallized intelligence
- Aspects of intelligence, including verbal ability and accumulated knowledge, that tend to increase over the lifespan.
- fluid intelligence
- Apects of intelligence involving abstract reasoning and mental flexibility, which peak in the early 20s and decline slowly as people age.
- A state of mental deterioration characterized by impaired memory and intellect and by altered personality and behavior.
- Alzheimer's disease
- An incurable form of dementia characterized by progressive deterioration of intellect and personality, resulting from widespread degeneration of brain cells.
- sucessful aging
- Maintaining one's physical health, mental abilties, social competence, and overall satisfaction with life as one gets older.
- 1 Stage in terms with dying
- Most patients react to the diagnosis of their termal illness with shock and disbelief.
- 2 Stage in terms with dying
- marked by feelings of anger, resentment, and envy of those who are young and helthy.
- 3 Stage in terms with dying
- Person attempts to postpone death in return for a promise of "good behavior". May offer God some special surface.
- 4 Stage in terms with dying
- Brings a great sense of loss over past losses or impending losses.
- 5 Stage in terms with dying
- Patients stop struggling against death and contemplate its coming without fear or despair.
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