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Glossary of Human Anatomy Lab 8

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Axial Skeleton
Contains the skull, hyoid bone, ribs, sternum, and vertebral column.
Appendicular Skeleton
Pectoral girdle, clavicle, scapula, upper extremity, humerus, radius, ulna, carpals, metacarpals, phalanges, pelvic girdle, os coxa, lower extremity, femur, patella, tibia, fibula, tarsals, metatarsals, phalanges.
Organic Material
Composed mostly of cells and collagenous fibers and makes up 30% of the bone by weight.
Inorganic Material
Makes up the remaining 70% of the bone and mostly consists of hydroxyapatite.
Hydroxyapatite
A complex of salt of calcium phosphate and calcium carbonate.
Epiphyses
The proximal and distal ends of the bone.
Diaphysis
The shaft of the bone.
Articular Cartilage
This is at the end of the epiphyses. It is composed of hyaline cartilage and helps reduce friction as the joint moves.
Epiphyseal Line
This is between the diaphysis and each epiphysis in older people.
Epiphyseal Plate
Occurs in individuals growing in height.
Hyaline Cartilage
This makes up the epiphyseal plate and increases in thickness by the division of chondrocytes.
Compact Bone
Hard, located on the outside of the bone.
Spongy Bone
Inner bone made of trabeculae.
Trabeculae
This segments or plates of bone that frequently run in the same direction as the stress applied to the bone.
Marrow Cavity
The innermost section of the bone that is hollow.
Red Marrow
Blood-forming
Yellow Marrow
Adipose-containing
Diploe
In flat bones, this is what spongy bone is called.
Process
A general term for a projections from the surface of the bone.
Tubercle
A relatively small bump on the bone
Tuberosity
A relatively large bump on the bone
Spine
A short, sharp projection
Condyle
An irregular, smooth surface that articulates with another bone.
Epicondyle
A bump on a condyle
Head
A hemispheric projection that articulates with another bone.
Neck
A construction below the head
Crest
An elevated, ridge of the bone
Line
A smaller elevation than a crest
Facet
A smooth, flat face
Trochanter
A large bump (on femur)
Ramus
A branch.
Foramen
A shallow hole.
Sinus
A cavity in a bone.
Meatus or Canal
A deep hole.
Fossa
A shallow depression in a bone.
Notch
A deep cut-out in a bone.
Groove or Sulcus
An elongated depression.
Fissure
A long deep cleft in a bone.
Nutrient Foramina
Small holes that allow for the passage of blood vessels into and out of the bone.
Perforating Canals
The nutrient foramina lead to this; these pass through compact bone.
Periosteum
Houses osteoblasts; this is a dense connective tissue sheath that covers the outer surface of the bone.
Osteoblasts
Active bone-forming cells
Tendons
Attach muscles to bones.
Ligaments
Connect bone to one another.
Perforating Fibers
Penetrate compact bone, strengthens tendon attachment.
Endosteum
A layer that lines the inner surface of long bones.
Osteoclasts
Responsible for remodelling of bone tissue.
Endochondral Ossification
A type of bone formation that begins with a hyaline cartilage template, later replaced by bone.
Primary Ossification Centers
The initiation of calcified regions in the hyaline cartilage that starts endochondral ossification.
Secondary Ossification Centers
Develop and expand the mineralization of the cartilage.
Intramembranous Ossification
A type of bone development in which a fibrous membrane is laid down and ossification occurs between the fibers.
Osteons
Modular units of bone.
Central Canal
The hole in the middle of the osteon that houses blood vessels and nerves in dence bone tissue.
Lacunae
Dark spots around osteons that used to house osteocytes.
Canaliculi
Thin tubes that protect the lacunae.
Lamellae
Layers of dense mineral salts that form concentric rings between the lacunae.
Osteocytes
The most common cell in compact bone; they live in lacunae.

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