Glossary of Human Anatomy Chapter 9

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What is the simplistic definition of a joint?
An articulation (joining) of any two or more bones.
What are the three joint classifications?
Fibrous joints

-Joint cavity?
- mobility
NO joint cavity

Very strong

Bones connected by fibrous joints ussually DO NOT move.
Cartillage joints

-Joint cavity?
- mobility
No joint cavity

not as strong as fibrous

(trade-off) Some movement
Synovial joints

-Joint cavity?
- mobility
A joint cavity filled with synovial fluid.

Not very strong

Synovial joints are often called
"True joints"
Which of the three classes of joints is the strongest? most moveable?
Fibrous; Synovial

-part of what structural class
-part of what functional class
-found where
-fibrous tissue is continuous with
Fibrous joint


the bones of the skull in infants

The periosteum of bones.

-Bones are connected by...
-examples (2)
-functional class
interosseus ligaments.

1.) distal tibia and fibula connection
2.) distal radial and ulnar connection

Synarthrosis in some cases and amphiarthrosis in others.
What determines how much movement is allowed within the structural class syndesmoses?
Short fibers (tib/fib)- little movement (synarthrosis)

Long fibers- more movement (amphiarthrosis)
What are the three types of joints within the structural class of Fibrous joints?
Sutures, syndesmoses, and gomphoses
What are the two types of joints within the structural class of CARTILAGINOUS joints?
Synchondroses and Symphysis
What are the six types of joints within the structural class of synovial joints?
ball and socket

-Part of what structural class
-Part of what functional class
-connective tissue


Periodontal ligament

the articulation of the tooth with its socket.

-part of what structural class
-part of what functional class
-connecting ligament?
-2 examples


Hyaline Cartilage

Epiphyseal plates of bones, and the first ribs connection to the manubrium of the sternum.

-part of what structural class
-part of what functional class
- connecting ligaments?



intevetebral discs and the symphysis pubis.
Synovial joints all have 6 general structures.
1.) Articular cartilage
2.) synovial cavity
3.) Articular capsule
4.) Synovial fluid
5.) Reinforcing ligaments
6.) Nerves and vessels.
the articular cartilage on synovial joints are actually ____________________ that is found
Hyaline cartilage; on the ends of the bones to protect the ends from being crushed against eachother.
Synovial cavities of synovial joints are filled with
synovial fluid.
The articular capsule of synovial joints have outer and inner layers. The outer layer is called the _______________ while the inner layer is called the ____________.
fibrous capsule; synovial membrane
What is the prupose of the fibrous capsule?
tough material that keeps the bones from seperating.
What is the function of the synovial membane?
lining the joint capsule and making synvoial fluid.
Synovial fluid
viscous lubricating fluid that is made of blood filtrate/
what is the function of reinforcing ligaments?
to strenghten and reinforce the joint.

The ligaments can be either extracapsular (tibia/fibia joint) or intracapsular (ACL, PCL)
What is the function of the nerves and vessels in synovial joints?
Blood is required to make the synovial fluid. Nerves are required to monitor joint stretching.
3 other important joints
articular disc (fibrocartilage)


Tendon Sheath
Articular disk

-made up of what
- found where
- example
Extra cartilage (fibrocartilage) that surrounds areas of high stress.


-made up of
- found where
small synovial fluid filled sacs between bone and tendon or muscle. Found in and around other synovial joints.
Tendon sheath

-allows tendon to..
-ailment here is called
holds tendons against bones lined with synovial fluid.

allows tendon to slide without irritation

bicepital groove

carpel tunnel syndrome.
the six types of synovial joints are named for the shape of ____________________ and ____________________.
the shape of their articulating surfaces; and the movements they permit.
synovial joints that allow bones to shear past eachother are termed
Synovial joints which allow joints to move in one plane (flexion/extension) are called
Synovial joints which allow moves in two planes (flexion/extension and adduction/abduction) are called
synovial joints which allow movement in nearly all directions are called
Plane synovial joints

Shape of bones:


intercarpals/intertarsals (slide past eachother (like waving))
Hinge synovial joints

Shape of bones:


Elbow and thumb (NOT KNEE)
Pivot synovial joints

Shape of bones:


C1/C2 and Radioulnar
Condyloid synovial joints

Shape of bones:


MCP- Metacarpylpharyngeal joints (pointer finger- flex/extend and ab/adduct)
Saddle synovial joints

Shape of bones:


Carpometacarpal joint (thumb)
Ball and socket synovial joints

Shape of bones:

Rounded convex

Hip and Shoulders
Movements at synovial joints


rotation- medial or lateral

circumduction- tracing out a cone-shaped volume
know the following special movements.

dorsiflexion/plantar flexion

inversion/eversion (ankle)

protraction/retraction (mandible)

elevation/depression (mandible)

Factors that influence stability of synovial joints
Articular surface- restricts movements that would otherwise cause dislocation.

Ligaments- hold the bones at articulating surfaces together to prevent excessive or injurious movement.

Muscle tone- muscles send constant contractile force even when not moving the bone. Thus they also keep the bones together like ligaments.
Temporomandibular joint

--bones the joint articulates
- made up of what 2 kinds of joints
- also contains 1 special joint
Mandible and temporal bone

Hinge and sliding synovial joints

also contains an articulating disk (meniscus) which divides the superior and inferior synovial cavity
what is the function of the superior synovial cavity? inferior?
Superior- allows the joint to work as a hinge.

Inferior- once the mouth is open allows the mandible to be projected anteriorally.
what bone is the easiest to dislocate?
the temporomandibular joint
What is tempromandibular disorder?
a disorder where there is frequent dislocation of the jaw.
what interesting fact do we need to know about the masseter?
the masetter is the strongest muscle in the body (per cross sectional area)
Sternoclavicular joint

-made up of what types of synovial joint?
-contains what special joint
-why is this joint so important?
- strength of the joint
-movement of the joint
gliding or (plane) joint

Artucular disc (meniscus)

the only bony attachment for the upper exremity

Very strong blows ussually cause fracture of the clavicle before dislocation.

Wide range of motion.
Acromioclavicular joint

-articulates what two bones
-what kind of synovial joint
-what common injury occurs here?
Acromion process and clavicle

Plane (gliding)

shoulder seperation
Shoulder seperations

-Grade 1
-Grade 2
-Grade 3
1: stretching of coracoclavicular ligament

2: tearing one or the other (AC or CC)

3: tearing both and displacement of the clavicle.
Glenohumeral joint

-Bones articulated:
-what class of synovial joint-
- SITS muscles
glenoid fossa of the scapula and the humerus

ball and socket joint

not very stable and therefore allows for a WIDE-RANGE of motion.

Rotator cuff muscles that hold the head of the hemur in the glenoid fossa.
In what position is your shoulder at greatest risk for seperation or dislocation?
when it is externally rotated and abducted. (throwing a football)
To be clear.

A shoulder SEPERATION occurs at what joint?

A shoulder dislocation occurs at what joint?

How is a dislocated glenohumoral joint fixed?
USE TRACTION. The dislocated humerus is pulled further out of place and the body pulls the arm back into place.
Hip joint

-articulates what bones
- what synovial joint
- range of motion
-why are dislocations rare?
acetabulum of the hip and the head of the femur.

ball and socket

wide-range but less than glenohumoral joint

because the acetabulum is very deep and it is very difficult to dislocate the femur that much.
what three ligaments make up the joint capsule
What is the chicken or the egg question about hip replacements?
Not sure if falling caused the hip to dislocate or if the fall was a result of the hip dislocating.
On average, how long does a hip replacement last?
15-20 years.
Knee joint

-what bones does it articulate
-what kind of joint
-what structures help stabilize the joint?
femur with the tibia, fibula and patella

MODIFIED HINGE- allows flexion and extension (but also rotation from the flex position.)

-4 ligaments (ACL, PCL, MCL, LCL) and 2 meniscus (lateral and medial) also patellar ligament.
ACL and injury
Anterior Cruciate ligament is the most commonly injured knee ligament.

1 skier has one olympic gold since 1970 without tearing his ACL.

Flag football
Knee ligament replacements last about...

In comparison to hip replacements how do they fare?
15 - 20 years

not as good as hip replacements.
on average how many knee replacements are done?
200,000 per year
Ankle joint

-what kind of joint?
tibia and fibula with Talus

What ligaments stabilize the ankle joint on the lateral side? medial side?
-deltoid ligament

-anterior talofibular
-Posterior talofibular
What ligaments torn cause a first degree spain? second degree sprain?
1st degree- anterior talofibular

2nd degree- calcaneofibular
90% of ankle sprains are
lateral ankle sprains. very difficult to sprain your ankle by internally rotating.
What is bursitis?
inflamation of the bursa. ussually from blow or from commonplace resting on a knee or elbow. (houssemaids knee or student's elbow)

-aka DJD
- what % of americans develop it
degenerative joint disesase


noisy joints

capsaicin- hot-pepper like
Rheumatoid Arthritis

A chronic inflammatory disorder (Autoimmune disorder)

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