Glossary of Human Anatomy Chapter 6

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the study of bone and tissue
the study of joints and articulation
At what age does the skelleton stop growth?
Never. it stops growing vertically and begins growing denser.
What are the five purposes of bone?
Blood cell formation
Mineral storage
How many bones are their in the human body?
What are the the classifications of bones and give an example for each.
Long bones- phlanges, metacarpals, metatarsals, humerus, femur, tibia, fibula, radius, ulna.

Short bones- carpals

Flat bones-stenum, scapula, ribs, illeum

Irregular- vertebrae, coccyx, sacrum
What are sesamoid bones?
bibes tgat wukk develop in the middle of a tendon or muscle. (patella, FHP, FHB)
How many bones do infants have?
More than adults do because several bones have not yet fused together.
Bones are made up of two kinds of bone what are they and where can they be found on any given bone?
Compact bone- found in the centers of bones

Spongy bone- found at the end of bones.
What is the shaft of a bone called?
What are the ends of a bone called?
epiphysis (proximmal and distal)
what divides the epiphysis from the diaphysis in any given bone?
epiphyseal line
Where are RBC made?
in the spongy bone.
Is the skelleton dry?
NO. Unlike cartillage, the skelleton houses between 3-11% of all the blood in the body.
medullary cavity
The structure within the diaphysis that is the site of yellow bone marrow.
what is found at the lining of the epiphysis?
hyelin cartilage
what is found lining the diaphysis?
periosteum- resists tension when bending in long bones.
What are perforating fibers? What is their function?
Thick collagen bundles that hold the periosteum to the compact bone at the center of a bone.
the cavity in which the yellow bone marrow or medullary cavity fit in is called the
what is the major difference in characteristics of long bones vs. short/irregular/and flat bones?
Only long bones have diaphyses.
In flat bones the spongy bone found inside is termed what?
To be clear, Red blone marrow can be found where? While, yellow marrow can be found where?
Spongy bone

Compact bone
imature bone cells found in the periosteum and endosteum, which respond to injury (so-called bone stem-cells)
a bone-forming cell
A bone-removing cell
once an osteogenic (progenator) cell is differentiated into a particular bone cell it is called an
What is the last class of bone cells?
bone-lining cells. Unsure of its function.
What is the most significant structural characteristic of spongy bone?
the trabeculae- many little ridges that act as shock absorbers on the ends of long bones. (recall this is at the epiphyses.)
Lacuna is found in compact bone.

lacunnae are small cavities within the lamellae where osteocytes live.

found where?
Small canal cavities that house the arms of osteocytes and allow them to connect to eachother for communication.

found where?
an osteon is a group of concentric lemellae that function to strengthen the bone like a tree trunk.

found where?
lamellae are the concentric rings that make up an osteon. They are made of collagen fibers and other minerals aligned in one direction for added strength.
Central canals

found where?
At the center of the osteon.

It is the cavity which houses the blood vesels within the bone (vertically).
Perforating canal

found where?
Canals that house blood vessels these however can travel horizontally.
Most bone growth occurs from
flat bones have a unique growth. instead of growing from cartillage they grow from ...
intramembranous ossification
carilage being turned into bone first occurs at the ___________ within the _________.
Primary ossification center within the diaphysis.
Where does secondary ossification occur
in the epiphysis
What causes the epiphyseal line?
the epphyseal plate where growth originates.
What is Wolff's law?
Bone is remodeled according to the stresses you place on them.
what occurs to the diameter of bones with age?
they grow thicker
what occurs to the thickness of flat bones with age?
they increase thickness
What is osteoporosis? what is its main cause?
weakening of bones as a reuslt of lost bone minerals.

It is a result of lazy osteoblasts and fully-functional osteoclasts.
fracture through the shaft of a bone
comminuted fracture
compression of a vertebrae
compression fracture
When is pushed into the tissue UNDERNEATH.
Depressed fracture
a bone fracture that goes through the growth plate?
epiphyseal fractre
incomplete fracture (common in children)
greenstick fracture
rotary type fracture (pitchers)
spiral fracture

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