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Glossary of How Cells Harvest Energy

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a chemical cycle involving 8 steps that completes the metabolic breakdown of glucose molecules to carbon dioxide.
Krebs Cycle
The loss of electrons from a substance involved in a redox reaction.
oxidation
The splitting of glucose into pyruvate.
glycolysis
The addition of electrons to a substance involved in a redox reaction.
reduction
A cluster of several membrane proteins found in the mitochondrial crista that function in chemiosmosis with adjacent electron transport chains, using the energy of a hydrogen ion concentration gradient to make ATP.
ATP synthase
A sequence of electron carrier molecules that shuttle electrons during the redox reactions that release energy used to make ATP.
electron transport chain
The formation of ATP by directly transferring a phosphate group to ADP from an intermediate substrate in catabolism.
substrate-level phosphorylation
A chemical reaction involving the transfer of 1 or more electrons from one reactant to another.
redox reaction
The conversion of pyruvate to carbon dioxide & ethyl alcohol.
alcoholic fermentation
An organism that makes ATP by aerobic respiration if oxygen is present but that switches to fermentation under anaerobic conditions.
facultative anaerobe
The conversion of pyruvate to lactate with no release of carbon dioxide.
lactic acid fermentation
A coenzyme present in all cells that helps enzymes transfer electrons during the redox reactions of metabolism.
NAD+
A molecule that conveys electrons.
electron carrier
The addition of electrons to a sunstance involved in a redox reaction.
reduction
An energy-coupling mechanism that uses energy stored in the form of a hydrogen ion gradient across a membrane to drive cellular work, such as the synthesis of ATP.
chemiosmosis
An enzyme that pairs with NAD+ to shuttle electrons in redox reactions.
dehydrogenase
The entry compound for the Krebs cycle in cellular respiration.
acetyl CoA (acetyl coenzyme A)
An organism that cannot survive in an atmosphere of oxygen.
strict anarobe
The most prevalent & efficient catabolic pathway for the production of ATP, in which oxygen is consumed as a reactant along with the organic fuel.
cellular respiration

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