Glossary of Hormones in Biochemistry USMLE Step 1

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Hormones dived into?
Water soluble
Lipid Soluble
Water solubles have receptor where?
Membrane Receptor
WHere is the receptor in lipid soluble hormones?
Inside the cell
What hormones require phosphorylation?
Water Soluble
How is gene expression controlled in Water Soluble?
cAMP response element binding (CREB) protein
What proteins are used in Water Soluble Hormones?
Leucine Zipper
What protein is used for Lipid Soluble Hormones?
Zinc Finger Protein
What are the water soluble hormones?
Catecholamines (NE, EPi)
What are examples of lipid soluble?
Calcitriol ---> Vit D.
Thyroxines (thinks is steroid)
Retinoic Acid ----> Vit A.
What do you think of with watersoluble hormones?
Receptor Outside (penis)
Zipper (Leucine Zipper)
WHat do you think of with Lipid Soluble hormones?
Receptor Inside
Zinc Finger Protein
What receptors use Glucagon and Epinephrine?
cAMP pathway
What are all the messenger involved in cAMP?
Gs Adenylate Cyclase ----> Protein Kinase

Gi alpha2 beta2 2MAD
What are pathway is used in Vasopressin and Epinephrine (alpha 1)?

Gq involves?
HAMMV (hummer)
Gq magazine

Think C or K
Phospholipase C
Protein kinase C

DAG, IP3, Ca+
What pathway does Atrial Natriuretic Factor (ANF) and Nitric Oxide (NO) use?
What pathway does Insulin use?
INsulin, growth factors
via Tyrosine Kinase
What do you see in the PIMP system? (PIP2)
Gq magazine

Cicis.... C C C
Phospholipase C
Protein Kinase C
Who activates the Ca+ release in the Endoplasmic Reticulum E.R.?
IP3 activates Ca+ release
What does Ca+ activates what in the PIP2 system?
Protein Kinase C
What membrane enzyme is used in the ANF or NO?
Guanylate Cyclase
If you want to...
Use Guanylate Cyclase
Guanylate cyclase activates what?

G is nice to get some....
cGMP activates what?
Protein Kinase G
What does Protein Kinase G do?
Relaxes Smooth Muscle

Relax and ENjoy the RIDE!
Where is nitrous oxide found?
Heme membrane
HOw does insulin activate hormone receptors?
Via Tyrosine Kinase
WHat do you find in the membrane for Insulin?
Two beta subunits
cross membrane

2 membrane helix span
unlike ANF that has 1 membrane helix span
What is unique about the cAMP and PIP2 system?
THey both have a 7 membrane helix span receptor
What enzyme of the hormone receptor has only 1 membrane span?
guanylate cyclase
What hormone receptor has 2 membrane helix span?
Tyrosine Kinase
Where does Nitrous Oxide (NO) come from? a.a.?
What are some drugs that increase NO?
Isosorbide dinitrate
Viagra (Sildenafil)

Where is glut 4 found?

Not Liver Glut-1
What happens if there is a mutation that increases G protein?
activation of ras (p21 monomeric)
gsp (G2 alpha)
What is involved in the p21ras oncogene?

liked to Tyrosine Kinase
G protein!!!
WHat is the mechanism for glucocorticods to cause DM?
They increase PEPCK activity via response elements causing increase gluconeogenesis

increase in glucose---> DM
via Zinc Finger Proteins
Which enzyme does Insulin activate in glucose related metabolism?
Glycogen Synthase

glucose is stored
glycogen is made

you are in a well-fed state
just ate
Which enzyme is activated when glucagon is present?
Glycogen Phosphorylase is activated

degrages glycogen ---> glucose
increase the release of glucose

you are starving

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