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Glossary of Histology Section 4: Myology

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smooth muscle
nonstriated, involuntary
cardiac muscle
striated, involuntary
skeletal muscle
striated, voluntary
epimysium
The connective tissue encasement of an entire muscle.
fascicle
A small, finite bundle of muscle fibers contained within perimysium
perimysium
The connective tissue encasement surrounding and thus defining a muscle fascicle.
myofiber
One muscle cell.
origin
he relatively fixed muscle attachment (more movable). Usually the more proximal.
insertion
The more mobile muscular attachment. usually the more distal.
belly
wide mid-region of a muscle.
head
grossly separable parts of a muscle that often have different attachmetns
synergistic muscles
muscles with similar attachments or positiions, and thus like or supportive actions.
agonist-antagonism muscles
muscles that are positioned on opposite sides of joints thus having opposite actions to one another.
What are two main reasons that knowledge of the location of origins and insertions of certain major muscles is important?
1) Knowing what joints and muscles will have effects on each other
2) Iff need to palpate
Name 6 ways muscles are named.
1) attachments (sternocephalicus)
2) shape (teres major)
3) function (supinator)
4) location/position (biceps brachi)
5) number of heads (triceps)
6) number of bellies (digastricus)
What are the four ways muscles can attach?
1) a tendon (fibrous connective tissue that connects muscle to a bone)
2)an aponeurosis (a broad, sheet-like tendon)
3) fascia (sheet or ban of fibrous tissue)
4) periosteum (connective tissue covering all bones of the body)
sesamoid bones
small bones that grow within tendons to provide extra strength and support, especially where extra tension is exerted
bursae
a small fluid-filled sac or saclike cavity situated in tissue in places where friction would otherwise occur
tendon sheaths
fluid-filled sleeve that resembles a synovial bursa wrapped around the tendon, passing over points where tension is varied
fascia
sheet or band of fibrous connective tissue that attaches skin to underlying structures
retinacula
specialized, band-like condensations of deep fascia that bind down extensor and flexor tendons over the carpus or tarsus
anular ligaments
condensed bands binding down flexor tendons over the digits

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