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Glossary of Head, Trunk, Respiration Muscles

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What are the muscles that make up the erector spinae from lateral to medial?
Iliocostalis
Longissimus
Spinalis
Erector spinae
(Iliocostalis, Longissimus, Spinalis)
O: Head
I: Sacrum
A: (Bi) Back extension, (Uni) Ipsilateral lateral flexion
N: Spinal
Sternocleidomastoideus
O: Sternum & medial clavicle
I: Mastoid process
A: (Bi) cervical flexion, (Uni) Ipsilateral lateral flexion, Contralateral cervical rotation
N: Accessory (CN XI)
The accessory nerve is which cranial nerve?
CN XI
Scalenes
(Anterior, middle, posterior)
O: Cervical vertebrae & transverse processes
I: 1st & 2nd ribs
A: (Bi) Cervical flexion, (Uni) Ipsilateral lateral flexion, contralateral lateral rotation
N: Cervical
Splenius capitis
O: spinous processes of C7-T3
I: Occipital bone
A: (Bi) Cervical extension, (Uni) Ipsilateral lateral flexion & ipsilateral cervical rotation
N: Cervical
Splenius cervicis
O: Spinous process of C7
I: Spinous process of C2
A: (Bi) Cervical extension, (Uni) Ipsilateral lateral flexion, ipsilateral cervical rotation
N: Cervical
What is the purpose of the spinal column?
support
distributes weight
protects spinal cord
absorbs shock
How many vertebrae are there
Cervical (7)
Thoracic (12)
Lumbar (5)
Sacrum (5 fused)
Coccyx (3-5 fused)
What motion occurs at the atlanto-occipital joint?
Cervical flexion & extension
What motion occurs at the atlanto-axial joint
Cervical rotation
What motions occur in the cervical vertebrae
Flexion/Extension
Rotation
Lateral flexion
What motions occur in the thoracic vertebrae
Lateral flexion
Rotation
Where does most of the movement during lateral flexion of the thorax occur?
T12
What motions occur in the lumbar vertebrae
Flexion/Extension
Rotation
Rectus abdominis
O: pubis
I: Ribs 5-7 & xiphoid process
A: Trunk flexion
N: Thoracic
External oblique
O: Ribs 5-12
I: Iliac crest & abdominal aponeurosis
A: (Bi) Trunk flexion, (Uni) Ipsilateral lateral flexion, Contralateral trunk rotation
N: Thoracic
Internal oblique
O: Iliac crest, thoracolumbar fascia, inguinal ligament
I: Ribs 10-12 & abdominal aponeurosis
A: (Bi) Trunk flexion, (Uni) Ipsilateral lateral flexion, ipsilateral trunk rotation
N: Thoracic
Transverse abdominis
O: Inguinal ligament, iliac crest, thoracolumbar fascia, last 6 ribs
I: Abdominal aponeurosis to linea alba
A: Abdominal compression
N: Thoracic
Quadratus lumborum
O: Iliac crest
I: 12th rib & transverse processes of lumbar spine
A: (Uni) Ipsilateral lateral flexion
N: Lumbar
Multifidus Action
(Bi) Trunk extension & posterior pelvic tilt, (Uni) trunk rotation & lateral flexion
During Kyphosis-Lordosis poster, what occurs?
Forward head
Increased thoracic kyphosis Increased lumbar lordosis
Anterior pelvic tilt
Shortened neck extensors
Elongated neck flexors
Shortened hip flexors
Elongated hamstrings
Weak abdominals
During swayback posture, what occurs?
Thoracic spine elongated and posterior to plumb line
Decreased lumbar lordosis
Posterior pelvic tilt
Forward head
Weak hip flexors
Tight hamstrings
What occurs during flat-back posture
Forward head
Lower thoracic spine & lumbar spine are straight
Posterior pelvic tilt
Elongated hip flexors
Shortened hamstrings
Elongated back muscles
What occurs during military-type posture
Increased lumbar lordosis
Anterior pelvic tilt
Decreased cervical lordosis
Weak rectus abdominis
Elongated hamstrings
Hip flexors lengthened
Temporalis
O: Temporal fossa
I: Coronoid process of mandible (runs under zygomatic arch)
A: (Bi) Mandibular elevation, (Uni) Ipsilateral lateral deviation
N: Trigeminal (CN V)
Which cranial nerve is the trigeminal nerve?
CN V
Masseter
O: Zygomatic arch
I: Mandible
A: (Bi) Mandibular elevation, (Uni) Ipsilateral lateral deviation
N: Trigeminal (CN V)
Medial pterygoid
O: Sphenoid bone
I: Mandible (inside of jaw)
A: (Bi) Mandibular elevation & protrusion, (Uni) Contralateral lateral deviation
N: Trigeminal (CN V)
Lateral pterygoid
O: Sphenoid wing
I: Mandible (inside jaw)
A: (Bi) Mandibular depression & protrusion, (Uni) Contralateral lateral deviation
N: Trigeminal (CN V)
Diaphragm
O: Vertebral bodies & rib cage
I: Central tendon
A: Concentrically depresses
N: Phrenic
External intercostals
O: Rib above
I: Rib below
A: Elevation of ribs during inspiration
N: Intercostal
Internal intercostals
O: Rib below
I: Rib above
A: Depression of ribs during expiration
N: Intercostal
What are the 3 types of ribs and how many of each
True ribs (1-7)
False ribs (8-10)
Floating ribs (11&12)
24 ribs total

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