Glossary of HPR terms
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- Health in 1900?
Health in 1930's-1960's?
- - Abscence of disease
- State of physical, mental, social well being
- Health today?
- Optimal well being
Environmental, Occupational, Physical, Social, Emotional, Intellectual, Spiritual
- Wellness made popular by...
- Halbert Dunn
13 weekly talks at a church in wash DC
- Spiritual Dimension
- life satisfaction, belief system, sense of purpose
- environmental dimension
- injury + safety precautions, respect for surroundings
- intellectual dimension
- adaptation to change, creativity, problem solving, critical thinking
- emotional dimension
- self esteem, attitude, self- efficacy, feelings
- Occupational Health Dimension
- happiness at work, balance work + family
- Social Dimension
- Acceptance of others, family, social graces, make and keep friends
- Wellness Model - AIR?
- At 16 years, average child has heard no how many times?
- How does laughter lead to a healthier life
- reduce stress, elevate mood, boost immune system, lower blood pressure, improves brain functioning
- Leading causes of death 1900
- pneumonia, TB, diarrhea
- Leading causes of death today?
Greatest contributors to premature death?
- heart disease, cancer, stroke
Smoking, poor diet + PA, alcohol
- PA prevents....
- MI by 30%, stroke, cancer, diabetes type 2, hypertension
- Best single predictor of mortality?
- Exercise capacity
_______ insulin resistance?
_______ insulin sensitivity?
- what % are overweight in US?
- Hawaiian Men Study
Men who walked __ of more times a day had a ___% mortality rate vs. ___% mortality rate for non exercisers
- What law states that tissues adapt structurally to resist forces acting on them?
- Goal Achievement
SMART method stands for?
- Specific, Measureable, Attainable, Realistic, Target Timeline
- Not thinking about changing, reluctant, lack of knowledge, denial
- Thought about changing behavior, procrastination,
- no physical activity, anxious stage, need positive reinforcement
- Change of behavior is observable, public knowledge, need help from others (active 3 or more times a week for the last 6 months)
- can experience ralapse, overconficent, daily temptations (vigorous exercise 3-5 times/week for more than 12 months)
- 5 years of behavior
- Processes of Change
- Processes of change provide info on how shifts in behavior occur
- Consciousness- Raising
- increasing info about self and problem
- social liberation
- increasing social alternatives for behaviors that are not problematic
- emotional arousal
- expressing feelings about one's problems or solutions
- self re-evaluation
- assessing feelings and thouhts about self with respect to a problem
- act or believe in the ability to change
-talk about changes they want to make
- environment control
- avoid stimuli that elecit problem behaviors
-no cigs or alcohol
- reward self for making changes
- helping relationships
- enlist the help of someone who cares
- Common causes of injuries
- improper technique, not treating minor aches and pains, picking innapropriate activities, taking risks, improper equipment, too much too fast
- Difference between chronic and acute?
- C- over time, repitive trauma
A- sudden onset, one time
what do tendons connect?
- inflammation of a tendon
connect muscle to bone
from repitive trauma, usually begins as a major irritation
what is a bursa, where are they, what do they do?
- inflammation of a bursa
fluid filed sac, strategically placed, decreases friction where connective tissue passes over bone
- Shin Splints also known as?-C
what contributes to them?
- medial tibial stress syndrome
running on a hard surface, shores, doing too much, muscle imbalances
- tennis elbow-C
what is it, how caused?
- tendonitis near outside of elbow
ccaused by repeated wrist extension- can cause severe pain when extending wrist and gripping
- dislocation- A
what is it?
- subluxations correct themselves
bone slips out of joint and stays out. common in fingers and shoulder.
- difference between a strain and a sprain?
- sprain- partial tear to a ligament (ankle)
strain- damage to a muscle or tendon
- __% of us will have a severe back injury in our lives
__% are prevantable
costs our country up to ___ billion/ year
- What causes back injury?
what jobs cause them
- bad posture, standing or sitting for a long time
truck driver secretary nurse
- see the doctor about back pain if:
- you lose control of bladder, bowel function, have altered posture, paresthesia (abnormal sensation), severe pain
- RICE principle
how many hours of ice?
- rest ice compress elevate
- why ice?
- ice constricts blood vessels + decreases swelling
heat opens up blood vessels and warms areas up. faster healing, relaxes muscles
- How many people each year end up in the ER because of sporting activities?
what % of ER visits?
top 5 culprits?
- 3 million people
- what is a ....
- laceration- jagged edged wound
incision- clean edged wound
avulsion- ripped or torn away
- arterial vs venous
- arterial- spurting
- unintentional injuries account for nearly ______ deaths per year (leading cause of 1-34 year olds)
each year __% of us will sustain an injury that requires medical attention
- what is arrhythmias?
CVD responsible for about __% of deaths in us
- abnormal heartbeat
- what is atherosclerosis
- narrowing of the arteries
can cause MI/stroke
- what is c reactive protein a predictor of?
what is it a better predictor than?
- predictor of CVD- indicates that there is inflammation in blood vessel walls.
better than cholesterol
- what arteries supply the heart with blood?
- what causes left ventricular hypertrophy?
- overworking of the heart - caves in on itself
high frequency exercise
- what is normal HR? range?
highly trained individuals?
avg beats/year - how many tons of blood/day
- 70-80 BPM - 60-100 range
highly trained- 55
40 million times - 10 tons of blood each day
- how does the heart become more efficient with exercise?
- pumps more blood with fewer strokes
- what is each and does it increase or decrease with physical activity?
-resting heart rate
-cardiac output (Q)
- sv- amt of blood pumped per beat- increases
hr- beats per minute- decreases
q- amt of blood pumped per minute - increases. SV x HR = q
- heart rate below 60 called?
above 100 called?
- how do you find target heart rate zone?
- 200 - age =
number x .6 = a
number x .9 = b
target heart rate = a-b
- Where are some places you can check your pulse?
- thumb side of wrist, neck, arm, pinkie side of wrist
- what are some primary risk factors for cvd?
high blood pressure
- what are some secondary risk factors for cvd?
which are controllable?
- diet, heredity, age, weight, gender, race, diabetes, stress
stress, diet, weight
- smoking is bad because it causes _______ walls to _______.
also increases stickiness of platelets. why is this bad?
- arterial walls , constrict
stickiness causes clotting
- what is the difference between good and bad cholesterol?
- good- high density lipoprotein. picks up stuff from arterial walls.
bad- low density lypoprotein. deposits stuff on walls.
- cholesterol breakdown
total should be less than ___
HDL should be between __ and __.
LDL should be below ___
total/HDL should be lower than ___. more than ___is a risk.
- less than 200
hdl- between 40 and 60
ldl- less than 130
4.5 and higher is a risk
- hypertension affects ___% of all adults. SBP ___ +
what is normal blood pressure?
- collateral circulation is..?
- ischemic response that causes growth or maturation. increases blood supply to the heart - develops over time.
- whats the difference between muscular strength and muscular endurance?
how many lifts for strength? for endurance?
- strength- max amount of force muscle can generate
endurance- ability to sustain a contraction- amount of time
- there are over ____ skeletal muscles in the body
____% of SM is water.
- over 400
-posture, movement, burns calories, body heat, blood flow
- difference between slow twitch and fast twitch?
- slow- steady low intensity exercise..darker because of more blood flow.
fast- fibers involved in explosive activities.
- what are some guidlines for working out?
- form, don't lock joints, exhale during EXERTION, start slow and progress, work out with a partner, work large muscles first
- DOMS stands for?
notice how many hours after? lasts for...? caused by.....?
- delayed onset muscle soreness
notice 8-24 hours after
lasts for 2-5 days
caused by muscle damage
- what to expect?
- 1- stronger but not bigger because of neurological system
2-6 - get stronger, start getting bigger
7-12 - reach potential in 7 months. maintain by liftin 2x/ week
- difference between types of contractions?
- c- muscle fiber shortening, angle of joint decreases
e- angle of joint increases, muscle fibers lengthen
i- fiber length + angle does not change
- valsalva maneuvar is....?
why should you avoid it?
- when you hold your breath and bear down
avoid it because you could pop blood vessels and cause an anuerism, and it raises blood pressure.
- substituting negative for positive stimuli
- more than normal load
- working only one part of the body at a time
- goals of FITT principle?
- health benefits, weight management, improved performance, increased fitness
- 3 functions of skeletal muscles?
- posture, heat, mobility
- if endurance is desiered, how many reps?
- alternating contract/release
- degree of abnormal motion of given joint
- range of motion
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