Glossary of HESI: pediatric

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Birth weight doubled by _____, tripled by _____.
6 months; 12 months
Birth length increased by 50% at _____.
12 months
Posterior fontanel closes by _____.
8 weeks (2 months)
A child can socially smiles at _____.
2 months
A child should be able to turn head to locate sounds at _____.
3 months
Moro reflex disappears around _____.
4 months
A child should be able to achieve steady head control at _____ of age.
4 months
A child can turn completely over at _____ of age.
5 to 6 months
A child can play peek-a-boo after _____ of age.
6 months
A child should be able to transfers objects hand to hand at _____.
7 months
A child develops stranger anxiety at _____.
7 to 9 months
A child should be able to sit unsupported at _____.
8 months
The infant crawls at _____.
10 months
Fine pincer grasp appears at _____.
10 to 12 months
A child should be able to waves bye-bye at _____.
10 months
A child should be able to walks with assistance at _____.
10 to 12 months
The infant says a few words in addition to "mama" or "dada" at _____.
12 months
From birth to one year, the baby explores environment by _____ and _____ means.
motor; oral
From birth to one year is what stage of Erikson's theory?
Trust vs Mistrust
(Developing a sense of trust)
What are some age-appropriate toys for hospitalized infants?
squeaking toys
picture books
colored blocks
activity boxes
Birth weight quadruples by _____.
30 months
Achieves 50% of adult height by ___.
2 years
Anterior fontanel closes by _____.
12 - 18 months
A child should be able to throw a ball overhand at _____.
18 months
The nurse tells a mother that her child should be able to kicks a ball at _____.
24 months
A child should be able to feeds self with spoon and cup at _____.
2 years
Day time toilet training can usually be started around _____.
2 years of age
A child should be able to speak two to three word sentences at _____.
2 years (24 months)
A child should be able to speak three to four word sentences at _____ of age.
3 years
A child should be able to states his/her own first and last name by _____.
2.5 to 3 years
Is temper tantrums common among toddlers (1 to 3 years)?
What is the import developmental task of a toddler according to Erikson's theory?
Developing a sense of autonomy.
What are some age-appropriate toys for the hospitalized toddler?
board and mallet
push/pull toys
toy telephone
stuffed animals
storybooks with pictures
What can the nurse do to promote the developemental task of a toddler?
Toddlers benefit from being taken to the hospital playroom, as mobility is very important to their development.
What are the average weight and height gain for preschool children (3 to 5 years old)?
Each year gain about 5 lbs and grows 2.5 to 3
A child can use sissors at _____ of age.
4 years
A child should be able to ties shoelaces at _____ of age.
5 years
Visual acuity approaches 20/20 at _____.
Preschool age
(3 to 5 years)
A preschool child thinking is _____ and _____.
egocentric; concrete
A child should be able to use sentences of 5 to 8 words at _____ of age.
3 to 5 years
At this stage of developement, a child learns sexual identity (curiosity and masturbation
3 to 5 years
At this stage of development, imaginary playmates and fears are common.
(3 to 5 years)
At child at this development stage begins to stands erect with more slender posture.
(3 to 5 years)
At this stage of development, a child learns to run, jump, skip, and hop.
(3 to 5 years)
A child at this developmental stage learns colors and shapes.
(3 to 5 years)
Imaginary playmates and fears are common at this stage of development:
(3 to 5 years)
Aggressiveness at _____ is replaced by more
_____ at 5 years.
4 years; independence
Preschool child's major developmental taks according to Erikson theory is:
Developing a sense of initiative
At this stage of development, the child appears to be bowlegged and potbellied.
At this stage of development, all primary teeth (20) are present.
(1 TO 3 YEARS)
Nursing implications of hospitalized preschoolers (3-6 years) needs to emphasize understanding of the child's _____.
(Explain that he/she did not cause the illness and that painful procedures are not a punishment for misdeeds.)
_____ or medical play to allow the child to act
out their experiences is helpful for _____.
Therapeutic play; Preschoolers
At this stage of development, fear of mutilation from procedures is common.
(3 to 5 years)
Toys and play for the hospitalized preschooler include:
coloring books
cutting and pasting
building blocks
toys that allow the preschooler to work out hospitalization experiences.
The _____ needs preparation for procedures. He or she needs to understand what is and what is not going to be "fixed." Simple explanations and basic pictures are helpful. Let child handle equipment or models of the equipment.
(3 to 6 years)
_____ are learning to name body parts and are concerned about their bodies.
(1-3 years)
During hospitalization, enforced separation from parents is the greatest threat to the _____ psychological and emotional integrity.
(1 to 3 years)
Security objects or favorite toys from home should be provided for _____.
(1 to 3 years)
Normal gain in weight and height for school-age child (6 to 12 years) are:
Each year gain 4 to 6 pounds and about 2 inches in height.
Loss of primary teeth and eruption of most permanent
school-age child
(6 to 12 years)
At this stage of development fine and gross motor skills mature.
school-age child
(6 to 12 years)
During this developmental stage, girls may experience menarche.
(6 to 12 years)
At this stage of development, a child should be able to dresses self-completely.
school-age child
(6 to 12 years)
At this stage of development, egocentric thinking is replaced by social awareness of others.
school-age child
(6 to 12 years)
At this stage of development, a child learns to tell time and understands past, present, and future.
school-age child
(6 to 12 years)
At this stage of development, a child learns cause and effect relationships.
school-age child
(6 to 12 years)
Socialization with peers becomes important at this stage of development:
school-age child
(6 to 12 years)
A child's molars should erupt at _____.
6 years
According to Erikson's theory, developing a sense of industry occurs at this stage:
school-age child
(6 to 12 years)
A child should be able to write script at _____.
8 years
The hospitalized _____ may need more
support from parents than they wish to admit.
school-age child
Maintaining contact with peers and school activities
is important during hospitalization for a _____.
school-age child
For school-age child, _____ and _____ are important, and should be respected during hospitalization.
privacy; modesty
e.g., close curtains
during procedures, allow privacy during baths, etc.
Participation in care and planning with staff fosters a
sense of _____ and _____ for a school-age child (6-12 years).
involvement; accomplishment
Toys for the hospitalized school-age (6 to 12 years) child include:
board games
card games
hobbies (such as stamp collecting, puzzles, and video games)
School-age children are in Erikson's stage of _____, meaning they like to do and accomplish things. _____ are also becoming important for this age child.
industry; Peers
Girls' growth spurt during adolescent begins _____ than boys (may begin as early as ___ for girls).
earlier; 10
Boys catch up to girls' growth at age _____ and continue to grow.
Girls finish growth around _____, boys around _____.
15; 17
Adult-like thinking begins around age _____. They can _____ and use _____ thinking.
15; problem solve; abstract
Secondary sex characteristics begins at this developmental stage:
At this stage of development, family connflict commonly occurs.
Hospilalization of adolescents disrupts _____ and _____ activities; they need to maintain contact with both.
school; peer
Illness, treatments, or procedures which alter the
body image can be viewed as devastating by
the _____.
For this develpmental stage, teaching about procedures should include time without parents present.
(12 to 18 years)
For this developmental group, some assessment questions should be asked without parents' presence.
When teaching adolescent needs, the focus should be on _____.
here and now
i.e., how will this affect me today?
Infants' concept of bodily injury:
Infants: After 6 months, their cognitive development allows them to remember pain.
Toddlers' concept of bodily injury
Toddlers: Fear intrusive procedures.
Preschoolers' concept of bodily injury
Preschoolers: Fear body mutilation.
School ages' concept of bodily injury:
School age: Fear loss of control of their body.
Adolescents' concept of bodily injury:
Adolescent: Major concern is change in body image.
MMR VACCINE Generally administered at _____ months of age and repeated at _____ years or by _____ years.
12 to 15; 4 to 6; 11 to 12
In times of measles epidemic, it is possible to give measles protection at _____ and repeat the MMR at _____.
6 months; 15 months
Measles vaccine is contraindicated for persons with history of anaphylactic reaction to _____ or _____, those with known altered _____ and _____ women.
neomycin; eggs; immunodeficiency; pregnant
MMR vaccine may be given to those with HIV and breastfeeding women. T or F
MMR vaccines are administer _____ at separate sites.
A child may have a light transient ___ 2 weeks after administration of MMR vaccine.
DTaP Vaccine administration begins at age ____, administer three doses at _____ intervals.
2 months; 2 months
DTaP Vaccine: Booster doses given at _____ to _____; and at _____.
15; 18 months; 4 to 6 years.
DTaP Vaccine: administer _____ (separate site from other vaccine).
DTaP Vaccine is not given to children past the ______ birthday; they receive _____ which contains full strength protection against tetanus and lesser strength diphtheria protection.
7th; Td
When pertussis vaccine is contraindicated, give _____, until 7th birthday.
DT (full strength diphtheria and tetanus without pertussis vaccine)
Contraindications to pertussis vaccine include:
1. _____ within 7 days of previous dose of DTP.
2. History of _____.
3. _____ symptoms after receiving the vaccine.
4. _____ allergic reactions to the vaccine.
Encephalopathy; seizures; Neurologic; Systemic
Parents should be instructed to begin _____ administration after the immunization (normal dosage is _____ mg/kg).
acetaminophen (Tylenol); 10 to 15
IPV is recommended for all person under the age of _____.
IPV is administer at _____ of age and again at _____ of age. Boosters are given at _____ , and _____.
2 months; 4 months; 6 to 15 months; 4 to 6 years
Administer IPV _____ or _____ at separate site.
subcutaneously; IM
IPV is contraindicated for those with history of anaphylactic reaction to
_____ or _____.
neomycin; streptomycin
PRP-OPMs can be given as early as ____ of age.
2 months
DaTP/Hib combinations should not be used as primary immunizations at ages ___, ___, or ___.
2; 4; 6 months
Children at high risk who were not immunized with Hib previously should be immunized after age _____.
Hib is administer ______.
_____ offers protection against bacteria that causes serious illness (epiglottitis, bacterial meningitis, septic arthritis) in small children or those with chronic illnesses such as sickle cell anemia.
_____ offers protection against hepatitis B.
Typically, given to all _____ prior to hospital discharge.
Vaccinate all children _____ to _____ years of age.
Hepatitis B vaccine; newborns; 0; 18
Hepatitis B vaccine is contraindicated for persons with anaphylactic reaction to _____.
common baker's yeast
Hepatitis B vaccine is administer trough _____ site at _____ , _____, and _____ of age.
IM; 0 to 2 months; 1 to 4 months; 6 to 18 months
_____ offers protection against chickenpox.
It is also a school entry requirement in 33 states.
And it is safe for children with asymptomatic HIV infection.
VARICELLA vaccine is administer at _____ of age (must beat least _____).
12 to 18 months; 12 months
Give _____ and _____ vaccines on same day or >30 days apart (separate site).
MMR; varicella
Irritability, fever (<102 F), redness and soreness at injection site for 2 to 3 days are normal side effects of _____
and _____ administration.
Following immunization, call health care provider if _____, _____, or _____.
seizures; high fever; high-pitched crying occur
Following immunization, a _____ on the thigh injection site and _____ the legs with each diaper change will decrease soreness.
warm washcloth; "bicycling"
Following immunization, acetaminophen (Tylenol) is administered orally every _____ hours (_____ mg/Kg).
4 to 6; 10 to 15
The common cold is not a contraindication for immunization. T or F
A highly contagious, viral disease that can lead to neurologic problems or death.
RUBEOLA (Measles)
RUBEOLA (Measles) is transmitted by _____.
Direct contact with droplets from infected person.
RUBEOLA (Measles) is contagious mainly during the _____ which is characterized by _____ and _____ symptoms.
prodromal period; fever; upper respiratory
Classic symptoms of RUBEOLA (Measles) include:
Koplik's spots on the buccal mucosa.
Confluent rash that begins on the face and spreads downward.
Viral disease characterized by skin lesions.
Chicken Pox lesions begin on the _____ and spread to the _____ and _____.
trunk; face; proximal extremities
Chicken Pox progresses through _____, _____, _____, and _____ stages.
macular; papular; vesicular; pustular
Chicken Pox transmitted by ____, _____, or _____.
direct contact; droplet spread; freshly contaminated objects
Chicken Pox communicability end when _____.
scabs have formed
Common viral disease which has teratogenic effects on fetus durina the first trimester of pregnancy.
RUBELLA (German Measles)
RUBELLA (German Measles) is transmitted by _____ and _____.
droplet; direct contact with infected person
RUBELLA (German Measles) is charcterized by _____ starts on _____ and rapidly spreads to _____.
discrete red maculopapular rash; face; entire body
RUBELLA (German Measles) rash disappears within _____.
3 days
An acute, infectious respiratory disease usually occurring in infancy.
(Whooping cough)
Pertussis is caused by a _____.
gram-negative bacillus
PERTUSSIS (Whooping Cough) begins with _____.
upper respiratory symptoms
_____ is a paroxysmal state of the disease is characterized by prolonged coughing and crowing or whooping upon inspiration.
PERTUSSIS (Whooping Cough)
PERTUSSIS (Whooping Cough) lasts from _____.
4 to 6 weeks
PERTUSSIS (Whooping Cough) is transmitted by _____, _____, or _____.
direct contact; droplet spread; freshly contaminated objects
PERTUSSIS (Whooping Cough) is treated with _____.
PERTUSSIS (Whooping Cough) complications include _____, _____, and _____.
pneumonia; hemorrhage; seizures

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