Glossary of HD - SGPSS 9 (Autoimmune Disease)
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- What are some symptoms of Graves' disease?
- Termor, weight loss, enlarged thyroid, prominent eyes, high serum thyroid hormone levels, low to undetectable TSH levels.
- How might the AIRE complex be involved with Graves' disease (or any other autoimmune disease?)
- Self-antigen for the organ may not be present for the thyroid, so it will eventually get attacked by the immune system.
- What is the mechanism behind Graves' disease?
- An agonistic Ab is produced by autoreactive B-cells. Ab's bind to the TSH receptor or to TSH itself, hyperactivating TSH production (not destroying the gland).
- How might the DNA of Graves' disease DNA be different from a normal one?
- It might show an abnormal AIRE complex. Also, this might be mediated by abnormal CD4,25 T-reg cells that allow self-reactive CD3,4 cells escape the thymus.
- How does diabetes develop by autoimmune disease?
- Antibodies will somehow react destructively against the pancreas.
- What is myasthenia gravis?
- An autoimmune disease where auto-Ab's inhibit the ACh-R's, shutting down the neuromuscular junction. Peripheral tolerance for ACh-R has been lost, and Ab's are binding and inhibiting it. Probably due to CD4,25 T-reg deficiency (maybe AIRE also).
- In the biopsy, why was there no inflammatory mediators or any other significant findings?
- Because the constitutive activation of the receptor would downregulate it within minutes by endocytosis, and the inflammatory reaction would die out quickly.
- What is celiac sprue?
- Allergy to gluten (wheat products).
- What is the mechanism behind celiac sprue?
- Gluten is taken up by MHC II and presented in such a way that, due to a genetic defect in the D loci, results in a T-cell cytotoxic response against enterocytes of the small intestine.
- Multiple autoantibodies were found in her serum. What information does this provide to the immunologist?
- The auto-Ab is simply diagnostic of the condition, it is not the etiology.
- What type of hypersensitivity disease is celiac sprue and why?
- Type IV because it is really the result of a TMMI response, since the auto-Ab's generated are only diagnostic.
- What are the symptoms for celiac sprue?
- Diarrhea, bloating, weight loss, dehydration due to inflammation of the small bowel.
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