Glossary of HDFS 363 Final Exam
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- What are the 5 roles of grandparenting?
- 1. Nurturing
2. family historian
3. teacher and mentor
4. model for mid-life and aging
5. "wise" role
- What are Newgarten's 5 styles of grandparenting?
- 1. Formal
2. Distant Figure
3. Fun Seeker
4. Surrogate Parent
5. Reservoir of "family wisdom"
- Why is grandparenting considered a "counter-transition"?
- Because our status changes only after the actions of someone else, not by our own actions.
- When do Americans typically become grandparents?
- 40's and 50's
- 1.Make it clear not your parent
2.Like to spoil you once and awhile
3. help out parents by babysitting
- 1. clear not parent
2. like to spoil
3. help parents by babysitting
4. see u only on holidays
5. kindly; but emotionally distant
- Distant Figure Type
- 1. Do things with you just for fun
2. Have a loving relationhips w/ you
3. do not have athority
- Fun-Seeker Type (mutal entertainment)
- 1. Have parental authority
2. Inovlved in descisions that effect you
3. Another Parent
4. spend more time then actual parent
- Surrogate Parent Type
- 1. Teach you special skills or traditions
2. Powerful force
3. Make it clear that they are not your parent
- Reservoir of Family Wisdom Type
- In relation to the "timing" of grandparenting: what is "off time" late?
- Cause us to feel we are missing something
- In relation to the "timing" of grandparenting: what is "off time" early?
- May cause a refusual to accept role
- Do grandparents affect the survival of a grandchild?
- While they may not be essential to the survival of children in western culture, they become more important in lower/poverty stricken communities for survival. (grandmothers)
- What is Selective Investment?
- putting more energy into one grandchild relationship than others - this is actually not so unusual.
- Define Simpatia, Personalismo
- A family centered value, that emphasises a pleasant demeaner; interpersonal interaction; good natured
- Define Personalismo
- warm and friendly
- Dfine Familismo
- Family centered value that is most important; strong identification to nuclear and extended families; also others not blood related, but close to family
- 3 main characteristics of Familiso
- 1. loyalty (obligation material/emotional)
2. reciprocity (living close)
3. solidarity (shared responsibility of child)
- The effects of Acculturation according to Silverstein?
- Multigenerational family more focused on nuclear family; diminishes the values, practices, and language, of younger members; exposure to dominant culture
- What happens to grandparent-child relations after divorce?
- Paternal grands get decreased contact; Maternal grands may have increased contact
- what are the current demographics of elderly? what is a future outlook?
- 1/7 are over age 65; 1/5 (dominantly female)
- What is the most rapidly growing age group?
- Over 85 which is dominantly female
- What is the economic status of the elderly in the US?
- better off financially; AAm more likley to be poor and women living alone
- Define senescence
- stage of gradual decline as we grow old
- Define gerontology
- study of the aged, and the process of aging
- Define geriatrics
- branch of medicine concerned w/ the aged and aging
- Define primary aging
- gradual, inevitable process of bodily deterioration
- Define Secondary Aging
- the result of disease, abuse, and disuse
- Who are the "young-old"?
- Who are the "very old"
- over age 85
- Define Functional Age
- Function compared to "average" person
- Define Maximum Life Expectancy and what is the average for both sexes? What country has the longest life expectancy?
- oldest age any individual lives; 77; Japan
- Define Useful or active life expectancy
- # of years free of debilitating impairment
- True or False? Your odds of surpassing the "average" life expectancy increases as you get closer to "old age"
- What are the 2 theories about why the human body shows signs of age?
- 1. Aging by design: genetic programming process which holds bodies age according to a normal dev. timetable built into genes
2. Aging by accident: variable rate processes
- What is the Hayflick limit?
- An aging by design theory that is indicated by the ceasation of cell division once telemere becomes to short (shoe lace ex)
- What are two Aging by design possibilities?
- 1. Endocrine system change: hormone levels decline/receptors less effective
2. changes in the immune system: due to primary and secondary (stress) exposure
3. Programmed Senescence: genes may switch off before age-related losses become evident
- What is the most likely cause of death in old age?
- Cancer rates; after 85: heart disease
- What are normal physical changes that come with adavancing age?
- • One subtle change: decrease in "reserve capacity" (the ability to put forth strong effort in times of stress)
• Cross-linking (loss of elasticity)
• Sleep changes
• Strength, dexterity, balance
• Sensitivity to hot and cold
• Visual and hearing changes
• Taste and smell
• Reaction time
- What are typical chronic health problems of older people?
- • Arthritis
• Heart disease
• Respiratory diseases
Note: Despite these conditions, the majority of older people still rate their health as "good" or "excellent".
- What is the "rate of Living" theory?
- An Aging by accident theory that says how fast you live indicates your life expectancy; metabolic influence
- What is "wear and Tear" theory? And what type of aging theory is it?
- An aging by accidnet theory that states the harder you are on your body the faster it will wear out.
- What is Error Catastrophe?
- Cell mutation can occur if multiple errors accumulate and repair may not be possible
- What are Free Radicals?
- Cellular garbage; the byproducts of cellular metabolism; a molecule that's highly reactive and may bind innappropriatly
- What are normal changes in the brain with aging?
- 1. Loss of mass
2. Dendritic connections between neurons tend to disappear as we age
3.Compensatory "sprouting" of new neural connections doesn't stop - it can occur throughout life
4. Decreased blood supply to the brain
- what is "plasticity"
- ability to adapt and get around problems
- What did the Shaie’s Seattle Longitudinal Study imply about cognitive decline?
- Decline varies greatly among people and is not usually significant; however, loss of skill was most apparent in unfamiliar, complex tasks, and under stressful situations.
- What are some of the factors associated with retaining high cognitive scores in old age?
- 1.being satisfied with one's accomplishments in midlife
3.being free of cardiovascular disease or other chronic diseases
4. being wealthier
5. being better-educated
6. being in stable marriages with "smart" spouses.
- What preserves cognitive function?
- Use of body and mind
- What does Engagement theory propose?
- people who have an active, engaged life after retirement, show less cognitive decline
- What changes in information processing occur w/ old age?
- 1. selective attention
2. Cannot divide attention as easily
3. Reaction time slows (processing speed)
4. The size of our working memory declines
5. Explicit memory tends to deteriorate, while implicit memory stays largely unchanged
- What are two types of Short Term memory?
- Sensory (few seconds)+ Working
- What are Long term memory types?
- 1. Procedural/Implicit (not thinking ie ride a bike)
2. Explicit/Conscious Episodic (specific experience or events) and Semantic (general factual knowledge, social customs and language)
- Which age group is more likely to be happy with their current life situation?
- Older people are more likely to say that they are happy than younger people despite declines and losses, except maybe among the oldest old.
- What are approaches to psychological well-being?
- 1. Feeling Based
2. Function Based
- What is function based well being?
- 1. Purpose in life
2. Personal Growth
3. Positive Relations with Others
6. Environmental Mastery
- What is feeling based psychological well-being?
- 1. Positive affect
2. Absence of negative affect
3. Satisfaction with life
4. Discrete Emotions
- What happens to personality with age?
- we do not usually see wide changes in personality unless disease such as dimentia is a factor; however we do see a change in cautiousness and vaunerability
- Traits linked to higher life satisfaction are:
- 1. Extroversion
2. Usefulness/competence (conscientiousness)
3. Trust (agreeableness)
4. Low neuroticism
- What personality trait is related to a long life?
- What is the homogeneity bias?
- we usually choose friends who have very similar background, age, and sex. Older people are often limited to these chioces and do not have the resources to make friends as easily as they once did
- What are the challenges to making freindships in old age?
- 1. Homogeneity bias
2. Friends give unsolicited advice and older people do not like it
3.Cultivating new friendships takes energy
- What are the 3 Styles of Making friends?
- 1. Acquisitive style (easy at making new friends at various times in the lifespan)
2. Discerning style (few friends, but those that are there are quite close, and may be only true friend; but may socialize more widely)
3. Independent style (try not to get very close, but socialize widely; have more difficulty when older)
- Why is retirement a fairly recent institution?
What 2 Social structural characteristics are needed for large number of people to be able to retire?
- 1. People typically did not retire; they worked until they were physically not able to.
2. People were fairly poor and needed to work
1. A strong Economy
2. Widespread pension system (SSA)
- What factors influenced the Social Security Act of '35?
- 1. there was a shift from farming toward industrialization
2. People were not expected to live 20-30 yrs after retirement
3. Was designed to be a social insurance program to provide retired workers with a "safety net" or minimal income.
- In what ways are people redefining retirement?
- 1. Average age= 62
2. Not everyone fuly retires and many take on new jobs
3. nearly half of retirees work again or take on new roles
4. housewives never really are able to "retire"
- What does employment provide?
- 1. a way fo structuring our time
2. something to do
3. an identity
4. a context in which we interact with others
5. A sense of participating in a collective effort
- What are two myths that were found in the Cornell Retirement Study?
- soon after you retire you will get sick and die
you'll be unhappy and regret it if you retire
(most are actually happy, and physical health remains constant)
- What are 3 Patterns that retire people structure their time?
- 1. Family focuesed lifestyle
2. Balanced investment lifestyle(middle ground between other two)
3. Serious leisure lifestyle
- What are some of the factors that influence our adjustment to retirement?
- 1. Economic status
3. Personal history with retirement (did we choose to retire or were we forced)
4. Amt. of Planning done
5. Flexibility (able to adjust to change)
6. Reactions of significant others (he's suddenly home alot)
7. Size of our personal social network
- What is the longest relationship most will have throughout thier lifetime?
- Sibling relationships; Hourglass: childhood and late to middle adulthood
- What are the Basic Activities of Daily Living?
- Bathing; Eating; dressing; getting into a chair; toileting; walking
- Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL)
- Managing finances; shopping for necessities; using telephone; having transpertation; preparing meals; taking medication; housekeeping
- What is "aging in place"?
- living in own home which is associated with independence and autonomy; people can experienc changes w/o have to change environment; relocating can be stressful
- Why is it difficult for people to stay in their own homes as they age?
- may be difficult to do household tasks; stirs may be difficult; neighborhood may lead to risk of victimization in urban areas; few transportation options for suburban and rural areas; property taxes tend to increase and income does not
- What are the 3 common types of moves?
- 1. Amenity Move: comfort; may involve seasonal migration
2. Kinship (Compensatory) Migration: usually after difficulty arises in managing own household, and also moving closer to an adult child
3. Institutional Migration: old age homes
- When are moves likely?
- 1. Competence-Environment Press Theory: predicts that moves will occur when the environment press is greater than the individual's competence can manage
2. People tend to move when there has been a change or anticipate a change
3. "push"(out of setting) and "pull" (into new setting) factors
- What are the effects of relocation on the individual?
- On chacteristics of individual
On what happens during relocation
On the new place of residence
- What are some of the living arrangements possible in old age?
"social" model vs. "medical" model
- 1. Congregate housing
2. Retirement communities
3. Assisted living facilities
4. Continuing care retirement facilities
5. Nursing care facilities
- What does elder abuse look like?
- 1.Physical assult
2.Verbal adn psychological
3.Provision of inadequtge living environment, or withholding life necessities or care for someone
4. Theft or misuse of money
5. Misuse or abuse fo medications
6. Violating personal rights
Neglect is the most likely form of elder abuse
- Who is the most likely target of elder abuse?
- 1. Frail and isolated
2. Living in the home of a "caregiver"
- Who is a likely perpatrator of admistering elder abuse?
- 1. Family member
2. Adult child
- which type of perpetrator of elderly abuse is more likely to be reported?
- Adult children
- What are situational factors surrounding elder abuse?
- Why do some people put up with abuse?
- 1. Abusive contact better than no contact
2. To see grandchildren, or to get some needed care (benefits vs. cost)
3. Spousal abuse may be lonstanding and perceived as "normal"
4. No capacity to stop the abuse/report it
- define the legal concept of "Having Capacity"
- The ability to understand relevant information and make decisions to meet one's daily needs (court may est. legal gardian if one does not have)
- What is Thanatology?
- The Study of death and dying
- How do we, as American's view adn experience death?
- Death has been removed from the everyday experience. We are now exposed to death in a more abstract way, often in context of media entertainment.
- What has changed? : in relation to the illnesses/diseases that affect death rates
- 1. 1900's: infectious disease such as tuberculosis, pneumonia, influenza, enteritis, ext. and often occured in younger people
2. Today: 3/4 of all deaths are people over age 65, adn are due to heart disease, cancer and stroke.
- Death has increasingly become:
- 1. A phenomenon of old age
2. "medicalized" and removed from public view
3. Preceded by a longer warning period
4. a "wall" rather than a "door"
5. removed from the family touch and is taken care of by professionals
- What is the Harvest Moon Effect (passover)?
- A pattern of death in which death rates decreased right before the holiday, in which older members of the family play an important role: people can time thier death
- What are typically the greatest concerns to people who have a terminal illness?
- 1. Avoiding pointless prolongation of life after the point of enjoying life
2. Avoiding "being a burden"
3. Want adequate pain medicatoin
- What is the "fighting spirit" vs. "stoic acceptance"?
- Two approaches taken towards life threatening illnesses: those who showed a "fighting spirit" tended to prolong thier impendant death.
- What is Terminal Drop?
- A pattern associated with death that shows a significant decline in cognitive ability.
- How do people react to thier own impending death?
- Kubler-Ross 5 stages of grief:
1. Shock, disbelief, DENIAL
5. ACCEPTANCE (not all reach this stage)
*not descriptive of all people and people studied were dying "off time"; also does not take into account variations in dying trajectory (ups and downs)
- Charles Corr's Four tasks for a dying person:
- 1. Satisfying bodily needs and minimizing physical stress
2. Maximizing psychological security, autonomy, and richness of life
3.Sustaining adn enhancing significant interpersonal attachmetns
4. Identifying, developing and reaffirming sources of spiritual energy, therby fostering hope
- What are Hospice Services?
- 1. Palliative not curative care
2. Appropriate when life expectancy is 6mo or less
3. Costs generally coverd under Medicare and or health care
4. Involves care from a circle of professionals and volunteers
- What is an Advanced Directive?
- To request or deny certain hospital care by legally signing an advanced directive to voice what care or procedures a patient wants.
- Durable Power of Attorney for Health Care?
- Legal specification of a person who can speak for you in terms of health care in cases of incapacitation of patient.
- What is the literal meaning to Euthanasia?
- good dying
- What is Passive Euthanasia?
- Doing nothign to prevent a natural death from happening
- What is "Double Effect" Euthanasia?
- pain medication in a dose that could hasten death
- What is SUPPORT?
- Study to Understand Prognoses and Preferences for Outcomes and Risks of Treatment: it is often hard to predict dying trajectory
- Define Bereavement?
- Define Grief:
- an emotional response to loss
- Define Mourning:
- behavioral response to loss
- What is Anticipatory grief?
- that which occurs before the loss
- Define Ambiguous loss:
- not clearly defined, uncertain, without tangible sign
- What are some myths about grief?
- -Bereaved people will always be distraught and depressed
-If you dont show a lot of distress early on, you'll have problems later
-Focusing on the loss will always help you work through it
-Mourning should be finished after a year
-Eventually everone will accept the loss, both intellectually and emotionally
- What are some of the common patterns of grief?
- Shock and disbelief: Immediate crisis (physical depression and sadness)
Preoccupation: intermediate phase (on your mind alot)
Resolution: able to go on with fond memories (2-5years or longer)
*not everyone will follow these patterns
- What are some factors that affect the way people feel, and express their grief?
- Age (younger is harder)
How a loved one died
Degree of social support
- What types of people are at risk for having difficulty with the loss of a loved one?
- Insecure, anxious and fearful
Have had ambivalent or conflicted relationship w/ deceased
have lost a partner unexpectedly or violently
Lack of social support
- How do depression rates respond to widowhood?
- The are higher before and spike right after
- What is a suttee?
- traditional practice of widow throwing herself on husbands funeral fire
- What are some points on Funerals and mourning rituals?
- -Cultural practices vary widely
-Most cultures have prescribed ways of handling human remains
-Rituals give us somethign predictable adn important to do at a tiem when we're likely to be confused and helpless
-Dispositon of remains in the US is typically done with the assistance of a funeral home
- Two theories of social contact across the lifespan are:
- Social Convoy Theory: we move through life surrounded by people who stay w/ us and others who come and go
- What are the Characteristics of social convoys?
- -consist of people who surround us as we move through life
-Provide us with a protective layer of social relations to guide encourage and socialize
-Some are in our "inner ring" while others are less close to us
-Middle aged people often have a large social convoy
-women in particular often have a large Inner ring in thier social convoy
- What is socio-emotional selectivity?
- This helps explain why people choose to spend time with the people they do
Social interaction w/ other people has three broad goals:
1. We seek information
2. We develop and maintain our sense of self
3. We seek pleasure, comfort, emotional well-being
- How do freindships change in Mid-life?
- -social networks tend to become smaller and more intimate
-Developmental task of finding a few good friends who provide high quality emotional support
-Often less time for casual friendships than in young adulthood
- What events happen in middle-aged gay/lesbian relationships?
- -may be first time 'coming out', resulting in a prolonged search for identity
-couple relationships tend to be stronger if not hidden from family and friends, adn if the couple seeks support from others
- What can be said about Marital relationships and satisfaction?
- Satisfaction tends to follow a U shaped curve; lowest when children are present
During the first 20-24 years of marriage, the longer a couple has been married, the less satisfied they tend to be
Satifaction then tends to rise again and maybe even higher than when began
- What is a "refilled nest"?
(cluttered nest or revolving door)
- When children come back to live w/ parents: may stress relationships, particularly if it interferes w/ efforts to renew thier intimacy or explore personal intrests
- What are intergenerational transfers?
- transfer of material goods or general help as support; goes both ways between middle-aged and adult children (not tangible from child)
- How do relationships with children fare during middle-age?
- -parent/child relationships improve somewhat
-children who were most trusted by thier parents see a greater closeness to parents in early adulthood
-Parents and young adult children differ in the way they describe thier relationships; parents report of it is often more positve
- Why is a relationship between the middle-aged and thier older parents a recent possibility?
- -100 years ago few people had older parents living
-today, most people enter middle age with two living parents and leave with none
- What makes being 'in the middle'the best stage of life?
- -earn most of the money
-pay most of the bills, taxes
-get to make many decisions
BUT-you may have responsibilities of generations on either side of you
- When do generational relationships work best?
- When people involved are healthy and vigorous
- Why is it likely that you will be providing care for YOUR elderly relatives?
- -they will be living longer
-chronic disease vs. quick infectious disease
-people tend to avoid nursing care "aging in plac"
-Hospitals discharge patients sooner
-family size has decreased, concentrating the care on fewer children
-women are likely to live for a time as a widow, often living alone
- What is the Scarcity Theory?
- stress of being in the middle:
1. Energy limitations
2. Role conflict and role overload
- What is accumulation Theory?
- Response to stress of being in the middle:
1. Energy control
2. Benefit form multiple roles
- When do caregiving rates peak?
- During midlife
- What are some consequences of caregiving?
- 1. increased psycological distress
2. Poorer reported health
3. Reduction of leisure and other social activities
4. May have a negative impact on marriage
- What are moderators of the effects of caregiving?
- 1. Degree of disability of the care recipient
2. Living w/ recipient=more distress
3. Gender: Women may suffer more negatively
4. Spousal care may be more distressing
5. Prior relationship quality
6. Social support reduces burden
7. Good personal skills help: organization and coping skills
- What is role salience?
- the importance of a role to personal identity
- What is Balte's View on wisdom?
- Expertise in the "fundamental pragmatics of life" and understandings about life's conduct adn meaning; while related to intelligence, creativity, and personality, it is something seperate; not reserved for old age
- Brain illnesses such as schizophrenia and bi-polar disorder tend to be____among the elderly
- Less Common
- Major depression is____ a feature of normal aging
- NOT (but do tend to increase with advancing age, esp. in males)
- What are some symtoms of depression?
- Sleep disturbances
Inability to concentrate
Difficulty making decisions
- Define dysphoria
- feeling sad (older people may see this as normal; also may be difficult to diagnose because some of the symtoms are typical of old age)
- What factors may contribute to an increase in depressive symtoms in old age?
- -Declining Neurotransitter levels
-Certain medication regimens
-Social factors: losses of friends and family
-loss of feeling of control over environment
- Some predictors of depression in old age are:
- 1. an earlier episode
2. poor health
3. experienced a loss event
4. low social support
- How can depresseion be treated?
- 1. Medication interactions
2. "Talk" therapies
(failure to treat increases suicide risk, esp. w/ men)
- What are factors that contribute to increase in depressive symptoms in old age?
- -Declining neurotransmitter levels
-social factors: losses
-loss of control
- Some predictors of Depression in Old age include:
- -earlier episode
-experienced a loss event
-low social support
- Define Dementia
- the general term for physiologically caused cognitive and behavioral decline sufficient to affect daily life.
(increases as we get older, however if not a factor after 90, then it is probable that dimentia will not develop)
- What is pseudo-dementia?
- taking the wrong medications can cause mental confusion and may feel like dimentia
- What is secondary dementia?
- Not treatable; typically from damage associated with taking certain medications
- What does subcortical damage?
- deeper damage to the brain as noted in Huntintons's and Parkinson's disease
- Korsakoff's disease is:
- an effect of alcoholism that may be confused for dimentia
- multi-infarct dementia (stroke):
- lack of blood to the brain
-declines show a more discontinuous onset: a stepwise progression
-may co-exist w/ Alzheimer's
-Certain environmetnal and lifestyle influences make strokes more likely
-before 75 is more common in males
- What are some facts about Alzhemier's Disease?
- A disease of old age, but one early form of it occurs in late middle age
average age of first symptom: 75
Course is progressive
Time from first appearance to death highly variable 3-20
- What are symptoms of Alzheimers?
- Forgets entire experiences
Rarely remembers later
Gradually unable to follow spoken/written directions
Gradually unable to use notes as reminders
- Describe the 7-stage model of Alzheimer's Disease
- 1. Normal cognition, no complaints or evidence of problem
2. very mild decline: forgetting MILD COGNITIVE IMPAIRMENT: may not become Alzheimer's
3. more noticable memory problems esp with recent memory; may or may not be able to diagnose at this stage
4. moderate cognitive decline: mild Alzheimers; subdued or withdrawn and have trouble w complex tasks
5. mid stage Alzheimers: increasing disorientation; mood and behavior change
6. Individual largely unaware of recent events, family and surroundings; can wander off and get lost
7. "severe" or late stage: physical skills become affected (motor skills, ect)
- Why is early diagnosis of Alzheimer's beneficial?
- 1. time to make choices to maximize quality of life
2. Better change of benefitting from treatment
- What test is used to determine Alzheimers?
- no singel test, a multi-faceted approach is used to rule out other cuases for dementia and pinpoint the pattern of memory and reasoning problems
- Why is testing for Mild Cognitive Impairment important?
- b/c may actually be symptoms of normal aging
- Upon autopsy what can be seen in an Alzheimer's patients brain?
- amyloid plaques
tangles of twisted protein threads called neurofibrillary tangles
- What is the Amyloid hypothesis?
- Amyloid precurser protein (APP) gets procesed inappropriatly into a fragmetn called Beta Amyloid, which aggregates into "clumps" called plaques which distrupt and distroy nerve cell function.
- What is Tau theory?
- suggests that the cause of Alzheimer's disease may be a deformed Tau protein
- Inflammation is a:
- possible "starter" process of Alzheimer's disease: it has been observed that people takign anti-inflammatory drugs to treat conditions such as arthritis have a lower-than-expected incidence
- Alzheimer's disease risk incrases with:
- history of head injury
history of stroke or cerebral-vascular disease
(exercising body and mind seems to help delay or even prevent the disorder)
- How does Genetic Endowment play a role in Alzheimer's disease?
- ApoE gene on chromosome 19: codes for a protein involved in cholesterol transport, vinding to amyloid
The allele ApoE-4 predicts late onset
ApoE-3 allele seems to be protective
Other genes on chromosomes 1, 14, and 21 are related to various forms of the disease
- What environmetal factors play a role in Alzheimer's?
- Reduced risk: Greater edu; Cognitive stimulating activity; use of NSAIDS or anit-oxidants
Risk: high blood pressure/high cholesterol; storke/head injuries; brain inflammation; infection; folic acid deficiency; smoking; decreased social activity
- What treatments can be used for Alzheimers?
- 1. Cholinesterase inhibitors such as Aricept and Cognex in early stages
2. Mematine-works on NMDA receptors, and can be used in middle and later stages
3. Other medication to reduce agitaiton and imporve sleep
4. Vitamin E may slow disease by 7 mo
5. Ginko Biloba may help but will not cure
- What is the life course perspective on Cojugal bereavement?
- it may be regarded as an important life transition in adulthood, which leads to tremendoous change and exerts marked susequent influences on later development
lives are lived interconnected with a network of other lives
- Role-identity theory
- provide the individual with a sense fo who they are and how to behave; the absense of social role-identities shoudl be associated with negative health outcomes
- Overall Role-identity theory and conjugal berevement show researchers that widowhood has a ______
- negative effect on health
- What is termed Normal Grief?
- this is a self limited process. "grief work", in which people deal with pain adn release the lost person, and readjust to the world without them
- What is the psychosocial stage process of grief?
- Initial stage: Numbness
Second stage: searching and pining
Third Stage: Despair; alterations must be made
Final Stage: recovery; new roels and relationships are tried out
- What is Complicated grief?
- this is not a self-solvable process; visual image of deceased, anger, guilt are persistent for years
- What did Zisook and Shuchter find about depression in thier study of widowed individuals?
- Thier depression levels were significantly higher than those of the married comparison group but tended to decrease over a time period of 24 months
- Define Loneliness; Emotional Loneliness; and Social loneliness
- 1. a feeling of incongruity due to lack of intimacy, contacts or support in social relationships
2. appears in the absence of a close emotional attachment and can only be remedied by the integration fo another emotional attachment or reintegration of the one lost
3. Associated with the absence of engagement in social network
- Bereved individuals often experience personal growth after their loss which is often reflected in:
- 1. increased independence
2. increased self-esteem
3. learning new skills
4. engaging in new interests
- What does Security Attachement theory indicate about depression in the widowed?
- Those who formed an early secure attachment had less distress and show better adjustment to depression over widows with anxious attachment
- How does internal control effect depression rates among the widowed?
- Those who had better internal control dealt better with thier loss
- How does gender affect the experience of the widowed?
- Overall there are no consistant finding regarding gender differences in association between bereavement and mental well-being
- What is Religiosity?
- Religion was thought to influence bereavemetn outcomes through to mechanisms:
1. religion may provide a belief system that enables ind. to deal with crises
2. participationmay be associated with integration into a social network
- Why are males more likely to remarry after being widowed?
- 1. their pool of eligibles is larger
2. adjusting to living alone may be harder for them
3. they tend to have fewer intimate friendships outside of marriage, and have less social support
- What is Robust aging?
- 1. Productive activity
2. Frequency of physical excercise
3. absence of cognitive impairment
4. Freedom from depression
- What is disengagement theory?
- you've earned the right to slow down and withdraw from things you're tired of doing
- What does Continuity Theory indicate about optimal aging?
- people need to maintain a connection between past and present a balance between continuity and change
- What is Productivity in old age?
- 1. Volunteer work formal or informal
2. Paid work
3. Can include household labor and caregiving
- What is Selective Optimization with Compensation?
- Selection: we select areas which we want to preserve
Optimization: we practice these and apply new technologies as needed
Compensation: for loss of certain things; adjustments
- What is Social Breakdown/Reconstruction theory?
- effects of aging are made worse by society's negative views and may even begin to conform to these negative stereotypes.
- What is marital capital?
- financial and emotional benefits of marriage that become difficult to give up
- What is filial maturity?
- when middle aged children learn to accept and to meet thier parents dependency needs
- WHat is caregiver burnout
- A physical, emotional and mental exhaustion that affects adults who care for aged relatives
- What is a skip generation family?
- When a grandparent is taking care of a child's child; aslo termed KINSHIP CARE
- What is ageism
- prejudice or discrimination based on age
- Define Longevity
- how long a person actually lives
- define life span
- the longest period that members of our species can live
- What does autoimmune theory suggest?
- That an aging immune system can become confused adn release antibodies taht attack the body's own cells
- What are survival curves?
- percentages of people or animals who live to various ages
- What are cataracts?
- 1/2 of people 65 develop cloudey or opaque areas in the lens of the eye that eventually cause blurred vision
- What is age-related Macular degeneration?
- Condition in which the center fo the retina gradually loses its ability to discern fine details; leading cuase of irreversible visual impairment in older adults
- What is glaucoma?
- Irreversible damage to the optic nerve caused by increased pressure in the eye
- What is the most important fact in maintaining sexal function?
- consistant sexual activity over the years
- What is osteoarthritis?
- (degenerative joint disorder) affects weight-bering joints such as the knees and hips
- What is rheumatoid arthritis?
- a disease that distroys joint tissues
- What is periodontitis
- gum disease
- What is Parkinson's Disease?
- the second most common form of neurological degeneration, is characterized by tremor, stiffness, slowed movement, adn unstable posture
- What are Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors?
- Anti-depressants such as Prozac
- What is the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale?
- Intelligence test for adults, which yields verbal adn performance scores as well as a combinded score
- What is termed the classic aging pattern?
- On the WAIS performance scales drop with age but verbal scalesfall only slightly and very gradually
- What is Baltes dual-process model?
Describe what the Mechanics and Pragmatics of intelligence are
- a model which seeks to identify and measure aspects of intelligence tha tmay continue to advance as well as areas expected to deteriorate
Mechanics: independant information processing and problem solving; physiologically based (often declines with age)
Pragmatics: practical thinking, application of knowledge and skills, specialized expertice, professional productivity, and wisdom; tends to grow with age
- Describe what kinds of tasks are associated with the working memory?
- Rehersal: repitition (shows little decline w/ age)
Reorganization and Elaboration: (decline with age)
- What is priming?
- Study method that increase in ease of doing a task or remembering information as a result of a previous encounter with the task or information
- What are the three procedural methods for memory?
- How does the brain's hippocampus relate to age related cognitive decline ?
- It loses 20% of its initial nerve cells and is critical to the ability to store new information
- How does the corpus collosum affect cognition in old age?
- atrophy may cause sensorymotor cordination between the brains hemispheres difficult
- What is failure of source monitoring?
- When decline appears in the prefrontal cortex common memory problems such as remembering wehre a memory originated can occur
- What is Metamemory in Adulthood (MIA)
- Questionaire designed to measure various aspects of adults metamemory, including beliefs about their own memory and the selection and use of strategies for remembering
- Define Metamemory
- belief or knowledge about how memory works
- What are mneumonics?
- strategies for remembering
- Can wisdom be defined acuratly?
- widom seems to be a highly individual thing, not subject to generalization about normative dev. and not gender related. Such qualities as openness to experience, creativity, reflective thinking, adn sophiticated moreal resoning seem to contribute to it.
- What is Lifelong learning?
- Organized sustained study by adults of all ages
- Describe Erikson's stage of ego identity versus despair
- older adultsneed to evaluate, sum up and accept their lives so as to accept the approach of death, otherwise people are left with despair realizing that there is no time left to pursue other roads
- Define coping
- adaptive thinking or behavior aimed at reducing or relieving stress that arises from harmful, threatening, or challenging conditions
- What makes for positive mental health in late life, according to George Vaillant?
- mature adaptive defenses in coping with problems in situations they are powerless to change; this is unconscious or intuitive
- What is the Cognitive-appraisal model
- People conciously choose coping strategies on the basis of the way they perceive and analyze a situation that taxes thier resources
- Coping strategies may be either Problem-focused or Emotion focused. Describe each.
- Problem: in the cognitive appraisal model, coping strategy directed toward eliminating, managing or improving a stressful situation
Emotion: strategy directed toward managing the emotional response to a stressful situationso as to lessen its physical or psychological impact; sometimes called palliative coping
- What are the characteristics of long-term marriages in late life, and what do divorce, remarriage adn widowhood have at this time?
- More likely satisfyed with thier marriages
Divorce at this age is rare
Remarriage at this age proves people to be more trusting, accepting, and less likely to share feelings
Women are more likely to live alone and be widowed
- How do unmarried older people fare in late life?
- They are usually more satisfyed with single life and less likely to be lonely
- What is the role of great-grandparent compared to grandparent
- usually a lesser role
- How do attitudes and customs concerning death differ across culture?
- they are usually based on the society's view of the nature and consequence of death. Some modern customs ahve evolved from ancient beliefs
- There is now an upsurge of interest in understanding and dealing realistically and compassionatley with death. This is part of what is known as the ______ revolution.
- What have some people described as a "near death" experience
- bright lights, out of body experience or mystical encounters.
may result from physiological changes that accompany the process of dying or mental response to the threat of death.
- How can people get over the fear of death?
- the more meaning and purpose people find in their lives the less they tend to fear it. Life review is another way(process of evaluating and finding the significance of his or her own life)
- What are Normative Changes in adolescence?
- Dev. is discontinuous, qualitative (different and new) physical changes, including reproductive maturity
Ability to think abstractly, and use a more "scientific" style of reasoning. (Piaget's formal thinking)
Limitations and implication for social life
Emotionally charged issues are tough
the 'personal fable' (no one understands)
the 'imaginary audience'
The search for identity, Erik Erikson's theory; often seek out peer groups to help define this by testing the self concept
School and work are influential contexts w/ more peer contact
the quest for autonomy can bring conflict with family; usually strong but emotional
Adolescent and adults are moving in opp. directions and can provoke jealousy in the middle aged adult
- Normative Changes in Young Adulthood
- Physical strength, coordination, and health reaches a peak
Health practices influence the course of later life
by mid 30's, Illness replaces trauma as the most liekly cause of death
Thought becomes more flexible adn subjective: post-formal reasoning
Decisions are made about intimate relationships; most people marry and become parents
Career choices are made and re-made
Work and family influence each other and both influence the course of our own life
- Normative changes in Middle age (40-60+)
- Some deterioration of physical strength and stamina is seen
Chronic heath problems may become more evident
Women experience menopause
Cognitive abilites remain high-esp. wisdom, expertise and practical problem solving
Very gradual slowing of fluid intelligence while crystallized intelligence continues to improve, performance on complex tasks remains steady
Sense of identity continues to develope (look inward)
Family responsibilities may be stressful
Launching children leaves the "nest" empty but it may not always stay that way
Views of career shift from outward ambition, toward inner satisfaction. Career changes
Turn inward and focus on time left
Activities show generativity are common (leaving something of value)
- Normative Changes in Later Adulthood 65+
- Most people are healthy, active and not living in institutional settings, althought chronic ailments are common
Most people tend to be very happy and mentally alert, do not see sign of Dementia in 60's and 70's
When you test adn retest people, they may improve and those left in a study may be a healthier than normal group
Processing speed and episodic memeory show measurable declines, but these dont debilitate most people
Retirement from the labor force, but most continue to be productive
Changes in living arangements may be necessary, but most people prefer to age in place
little predictable age-linked change in personality is seen
Older people tend to have a broader range of coping skills which equips them to deal with loss
"life review" phsychosocial task of "integrity vs. Despair"
- Key Principles of Baltes Life Span are?
- Developement is lifelong
Multi-dimentional; it involves both gains and losses
The relative influences of biology and culture shift across the lifespan
Age Graded Events: very influencial very early in life (happen to most people at about the same time)
History Graded Event: Cohort of people go through similar events (Adolescence and young adulthood)
Development involves a changing allocation of resources
Developement is modifiable; it shows plasticity
Developement is influenced by historical and cultural context
- What is Imprinting?
- An instinctive and irreversible tie to the mother
- Difference between Critial period and Sensitive period
- Critical: event has specific influence
Sensitive: individual is most responsive to certain events
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