Glossary of HCCF: 160 CH 9-11
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- CHILDREN 2-6 GROW ABOUT HOW MUCH PER YEAR, HEIGHT AND WEIGHT?
- 2 1/2 INCHES, 5-7 POUNDS
- BY AGE 5 THE BRAIN IS AT WHAT % OF ITS FINAL WEIGHT?
- DOES THE BRAIN GROW AS RAPIDLY AS IT DID IN INFANCY?
- DO THE BRAIN AND HEAD GROW MORE RAPIDLY THAN THE BODY?
- NEW ? ARE CREATED AND NEUROTRANSMITTERS SUCH AS ? ARE INCREASED
- SYNAPSES, DOPEMINE
- Myelination of the areas of the brain needed for ? and ?
coordination are not complete until age 4.
- eye and hand
- For the areas that control
? , the Myelination is
not complete until middle or
- Most rapid growth during years 3-6 is in the ? lobe
- Local patterns in the brain
changes rapidly from ages ?-?
- Can environment effect the
physical development of the
- True or False?
Children are often
- What is laxy eye and how can it be treated?
- Imbalance in the eye muscles
that can lead to double vision. Treatments include patching the stronger eye, Glasses, eye exercises or occasionally surgery
- What are perceptual motor activities?
- Copying movements as in
songs and rhymes
- Children need ? to develop the large muscles and improve gross motor skills such as jumping, climbing, and running.
- By age ? skills are under better command of the eye
- Kellogg’s Stages are concerning what fine motor ability?
- Earliest form of drawing where children are usually experimenting with the media.
- Basic Scribbles (Age 2-3)
- A little more organization to scribbles
- Placement stage
- Child around 3 years draws 6 basic shapes – Circle,square,
triangle, X’s, crosses and
- Shape Stage
- Combination of shapes to make more complex designs
- Design Stage
- At about 4 or 5 children begin drawing representational objects that are recognizable.
- Pictoral Stage
- What is a Transitional Object?
- Usually soft and cuddly helps the child become a more independent person
- What child behavioral problems can be linked to sleep problems?
- What are Nightmares?
In they are persistent it might mean the child is under too much stress
- What are Night Terrors?
- Includes intense physical redaction
Child usually unaware of what had frightened them or awakened them and
fall back to sleep quickly
Usually not a serious problem
- Average child needs about calories per day?
- Children eat too much ? and ?
- fat and sugar
- What are the leading cause of deathfor children of this age?
- Accidents :
House fires and explosions
- What is Self Understanding?
- It is the child's cognitive representation of self, the
substance and content of the child’s self -conceptions
- Self recognition begins at what age?
- 18 months
- What is the emotional development of a 2-3 year old?
- ¡ Increase in emotional vocabulary
¡ Correctly label emotions in self and others and talk about past,
present and future emotions
¡ Talk about causes and consequences of some emotions
associated with certain situations
¡ Use emotional language in pretend play
- What is the emotional development of a 4-5 year old?
- ¡ Show increased capacity to reflect verbally on emotional and
consider more complex reactions between emotion and situation
¡ Understand that the same event can call forth different feelings
in different people and that feelings sometimes persist long after the events that caused them
¡ Demonstrate a growing awareness about controlling and managing emotions in accord with social standards
- What is Moral Development?
- Development regarding rules and conventions about what people should do in their interaction with others
- What is Heteronomy?
- ¡ Younger children, in general, reasoned in a way which Piaget described as
heteronymous. Not only did younger children's moral judgments focus on the material features of a situation. They were also strongly influenced by the potential responses of an authority figure, invariably an adult or an older child, who determined what was right or wrong for these younger children.
- What is Imminent Justice?
- immediate punishment for a broken rule
- What is autonomy?
- ¡ Amongst the older children, however, Piaget noted that reasoning was more autonomous in character. The older children's moral thought was based on notions of intention and motivation. For older children morality was not something that w as seen to be determined by authority figures.
- What are the Social Cognitive theories of Bandura?
- ¡ When children are rewarded for moral behavior they are likely
to repeat that behavior
¡ When models behave morally, children also adopt their actions
¡ Morality influenced greatly by the situation
¡ Ability to resist temptation may be linked to the development of self control
- What is Superego development?
- ¡ To Freud this is the Moral branch of the psyche or personality
¡ Resolution to the Oedipus Complex and identification with the same sex parent to relieve the feelings of guilt and reduce anxiety
¡ Internalize the parents sense of right and wrong
- What is empathy?
- ¡ A positive feeling that contributes to the child ’s moral development
¡ Many theorists feel that these positive emotions have as much to do with a child's moral development as the negative ones (shame, guilt)
- True or False?
Females use both hemispheres of the brain much more than
men do due to a prenatal hormone difference.
- What is Evolutionary psychology?
- Men and women experiences different pressures and
therefore evolved different behaviors
- What is the “Pink and Blue” syndrome?
- Differences in how boy and girl children are treated begins at
l Hairstyles, toys, clothes
l Interactions from parents differ
l Gender roles through imitation and modeling
- What are the parental influences on gender?
- ¡ Mothers tend to be more nurturing
¡ Father more likely to engage in play with the child
¡ Girls more likely to be given dolls and boys balls
- What are the peer influences on gender?
- ¡ Peers “reward” children for engaging in same sex activities and criticize cross-sex activity
¡ Especially during middle childhood and adolescence
- What is the difference schools and teachers have on gender?
- ¡ Girls learning problems are not identifies as readily as boys
¡ Boys get more attention in school
¡ Pressure to achieve heaped more on boys than girls
- What are the effects of divorce on children?
- lAcademic problems
lLess socially responsible
lLess competent at intimate relationships
lSexually active earlier
lDrug users However not all children of divorce suffer
- Parents of Bullies tend to be authoritarian, rejecting, and permissive
of their child's aggression?
True or False?
- What are the functions of play?
- ¡ Health
¡ Increase affiliation with peers
¡ Release tension
¡ Advance cognitive development
¡ Increase exploration
¡ Safe place to engage in dangerous behaviors
¡ Practice roles they will assume later
- Waht is Unoccupied play?
- Child not engaged in a play behavior
- What is Solitary Play?
- Alone or independently
- What is Onlooker Play?
- Watches other children play
- What is Parallel Play?
- Child plays separately from others but with toys like the others are using and in a
manner that mimics their play
- What is Associative Play?
- Involves interaction but little or no organization
- What is Cooperative play?
- Social interaction in an organized activity with a sense of group
- What is Sensorimotor and Practice Play?
- ¡ Behavior engaged in by infants to derive pleasure by exercising their existing schemas Happens primarily
in infancy but engaged in throughout life
¡ Involves repetition of a new or novel skill Pretend or Symbolic Play
¡ Child transfers physical world into symbols
- What is social play?
- Involves interaction with peers
- What is Constructive Play?
- ¡ Combines sensory motor and practice repetition activity with symbolic representation.
¡ Self regulated creation or construction of a product or a problemsolution
- At what ages do children engage in games with rules?
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