Glossary of Gram positive bacilli
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- AEROBIC gram positive bacilli genera (5)
- Name 3 general characteristics of all Corynebacterium species:
(shape, behavior, test)
- -Club-shaped GPB
-Capable of snapping/pallisading
- What special staining morphology is unique to corynebacterium diptheriae?
- -When stained w/ methylene blue, shows metachromatic food granules that LOOK like spores
- What type of hemolysis does C. diptheriae exhibit?
- Beta; therefore it could be confused with beta streps.
- Name 2 types of growth media for culturing C. diptheriae:
- -Loeffler serum agar
- Why is Loeffler serum agar used?
- It allows for a good staining reaction of C. diptheriae
- What is the purpose of tellurite agar?
- Isolation & differentiation of C. diphtheriae.
Differentiation: C. dipht will turn black, other colonies will remain clear/white.
- what causes diptheria?
- exotoxin produced by the organism;
coded by lysogenic phage
- List 3 symptoms of diptheria:
- -pharyngeal membrane
- how many types of corynebacterium, what are they:
- when does diptheria develop from a corynebacterium diptheroid strain?
- when a lysogenic phage (encoding the toxin that causes the disease) infects the bacterium.
- symptoms of diptheria
- swellign of neck, lymphadenopathy, Bull's Neck
- 3 strains of colonial morphology of corynebacterium on tellurite agar:
- -gravis (very grave; severe)
-mitis (little mite; not severe)
- what is the Elek test for?
- confirming the virulence of corynebacerium diptheriae (make sure it actually is producing the toxin)
- 3 steps in the diagnostic strategy for corynebacterium diptheriae
- 1. doctor clues us in
2. colonial morphology on tellurite tells how virulent the strain is.
3. virulence testing (elek) confirms the virulence
- What are the diptheroids?
Where are they normal flora?
- A general group of about 12 corynebacterium species;
-Normal flora on skin/mucous memb/vagina;
- What diphtheroid is most commonly an infection causer?
Where is it normal flora?
- -Corynebacterium jeikeium
- What is the DPT vaccine for?
- Diphtheria and Pertussis - but should only be given to folks under 5 yrs old.
- What bacteria causes encrusted cystitis?
Explain the infection.
- C. urealyticum. It produces urease; surrounds itself w/ NH3 to combat antibiotic, results in a chronic UTI.
- what is commonly inserted into the vagina to maintain its physiology because it's such a wonderful part of the normal flora?
- lactobacillus. also common in mouth.
- lactobacillus morphology
- long, thin GPB
- lactobacillus is it a pathogen?
- rarely; in yogurt and probiotics. in the normal flora.
- two things that differentiate corynebacterium from lactobacillus:
- Coryne Lacto
Catalase positive Catalase negative
snapping no snapping
club-shaped long and thin
- listeria monocytogenes gram stain
- gram positive COCCObacilli; very small so look for one
- 3 basic characterist of listeria:
- 1. gram stain = coccobacilli
2. weak positive catalase
3. weak B-hemolysis confuses w/ strep cuz its small/off-white/translucent too
- pathogenicity of listeria; where, to whom, what diseases?
- where; in dairy products, cold, processed meats like hot dogs.
whom: in neonates or immunocomp adults;
diseases: meningitis, septicemia
- which organism is commonly confused with weakly B-hemolytic Streps?
- listeria monocytogenes
- what is commonly confused with listeria?
- weakly B-hemolytic streps
- How specifically is Listeria similar to Strep?
- -Bile esculin positive makes you think it's enterococcus or strep D nonentero.
-Hippurate hydrolysis positive makes you think it's Strep group B
- what are 2 ways to detect motility of listeria?
- at room temp (cooler)
-hanging drop shows tumbling!!
-semi-solid stab shows umbrella!!
- What weird combo is used to treat listeria?
- amoxacillin + aminoglycoside
- positive biochem tests of listeria;
- bile esculin
all are positive!
- Name two basic characteristics of erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae:
- -Long, gram pos bacilli
- What type of disease does e. rhusiopathiae cause:
- Erysipeloid - a zoonotic cellulitis in vets and butchers, that may turn to bacteremia.
- ERYSIPELOTHRIX RHUSIOPATHIAE IS THE ONLY GRAM POSITIVE BACILLUS TO PRODUCE:
- H2S - Hydrogen sulfide positive
- basic description of bacillus gram stain
- large gram positive bacilli with spores
- bacillus is catalase
- listeria is catalase
- weakly positive
- erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae is catalase
- corynebacterium is catalase
- lactobacillus is catalase
- all bacillus are ___ and ___ except Anthracis:
- beta hemolytic
- what is the pathogen of the bacilli?
- bacillus anthracis
- what bacteria makes chains of gpb with round to oval cntral spores? looks like bamboo?
- bacillus anthracis
- What does tenacious mean?
- Colonies like to stick togehter
- what chemically makes anthracis tenacious?
- it has a protein capsule instead of glycocalyx/sugar. Thus it sticks
- hemolysis of bacillus anthracis?
- not beta like its family; its gamma!
- which bacteria has a rhizoid margin
- bacillus anthracis
- what happens when you touch the top of an anthracis colony with a needle?
- sticks to the needle like an egg-white peak cuz of the protein capsule in place of sugar
- What are three pathogenic forms of anthracis?
- What is the main cutaneous anthrax characteristic, and another name for this form?
- Black escher - spores under the skin cause pustules which turn black.
- How is cutaneous anthrax often transmitted?
- Through handling goat hides
- How is pulmonary anthrax transmitted?
What is another name for it?
- Via inhalion of spores released during wool shearing.
Aka, Woolsorter's disease.
- least common and most likely to be fatal anthrax form:
- enteritis. From infected meat.
- what is used to treat anthrax?
- penicillin/ ciprofloxacin
- 6 essentials for I.D. Anthrax:
- 1. Gamma colonies
2. Large tenacious GPB with spores
3. Catalase +
5. I.D. by public health labs
6. Level 3 safety safety cab necessary
- where are saprophytic bacilli often found?
- as plate contaminants on cultures.
- type of hemolysis of Saprophytic bacillus
- Beta, like almost all other bacilli, except anthracis
- bacillus cereus causes 2 TWO! really gross things:
- -emetic food poisoning
-diarrhetic food poisoning
- What are the 2 main differences between emetic and diarrhetic food poisoning?
- The incubation times and associated foods.
-Emetic: 1-6 hr incubation, assoc. w/ fried rice. -Diarrhetic: 6-24 hr incubation, assoc. w/ meats and sauces.
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