Glossary of Government Final Exam
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- What is an embassy?
- an ambassadors official residence and offices in a foreign country.
- Jurisdiction of the Supreme Court is what?
- Supreme Court has jurisdiction over cases involving representatives of a foreign government and certain cases in which a state is a party in the law case.
- What is foreign policy? 5 Goals of U.S. policy.
- Foreign policy is strategies and policies that guide the government in relations with other countries and groups in the world.
Free and Open Trade
Concern for Humanity
- Steps to bill becoming law
- introduced by member
referred to committee
committee holds hearing on bill
bill is debated in house
majority vote for bill
sent to other house and repeat steps
president signs bill into law
- What strategies does the US use to accomplish its foreign policy goals?
- alliances, programs of foreign aid, economic sanctions and military action
- What is the purpose of a passport and visa?
- A passport entitles a traveler to certain privileges and protection established be an international treaty.
A visa is a special document issued by the government of the country that a person wishes to enter.
- How are Supreme Court justices selected or appointed?
- The justices of the Supreme Court are selected by the President, but are appointed by approval of the Senate.
- How does the government raise money? Name different types of taxes
- Government raises money by taxes and by borrowing. Some taxes are
individual income tax-tax on personal
corporate tax-tax on businesses
social security tax-from workers to
pay for social security
excise tax-taxes on making, transporting, sale or consumption of goods and services
estate and gift tax
Import or custom duties
- What was the impact of past presidents on the office of the President today?
- Changing the power to the "right and duty to do anything that the needs of the Nation demand, unless such action was forbidden by the Constitution or by the laws."
- Describe the structure of Congress
- Congress is divided into two separate Houses. The house of Representatives and the Senate
- Name and describe two principles of government that were practiced in England that greatly influenced the development of government in the United States?
- limited government-the power of the
monarch was limited not absolute
representative government- people elect
delegates to make laws and conduct
- Explain the system of Checks and Balances in US government
- A system whereby each branch of government exercises some control on the others.
- Growth and development of political parties
- 1) two parties at end of George Washington's term
2) Federalist and Democratic-Republican parties
3) Democratic-Republican party split into 2 parties..the Whigs and the Democrats
4) Finally, there developed only the Democratic and Republican party in control
- What is a third party? and how do they influence government?
- Third party is any party except the two major parties. They challenge major parties, promote ideas that are usually later adopted by major parties
- What is a political party platform?
- A political party platform is a statement of its principles, beliefs, and positions on vital issues
- What is domestic policy?
- Domestic policy is the rules followed at home (domestic). For example, the policy of laws, money, welfare, etc.
- Describe development of US foreign policy?
- 1) US was isolated
2) Monroe Doctrine extending isolationism
3) US became world power
4) Involvement in 2 World wars
5) Truman Doctrine
6) Cold war and arms control
- What is the major purpose of the Bill of Rights?
- The purpose of the Bill of Rights is to limit the powers of government to protect the rights of individual liberty and the rights of persons accused of crimes
- How can the Constitution be changed?
- The Constitution can be changed by
proposing and radifying (approving) amendments by 2/3 vote of Congress or by holding a national convention with 2/3 of states present (never used yet)
After this, Congress sets the rules
- What is the role of Congress in making foreign policy?
- Congress has the power to declare war and to appropriate money. The Senate must ratify treaties and confirm diplomatic appointments.
- How has judicial review affected society?
- the changes proposed by judicial review (taken over by Supreme Court) has changed the laws and actions of society in such situations as abortion, death penalty, and assisted suicide
- What is the jurisdiction of the federal courts?
- The federal courts power is derived from the constitution and federal laws. The jurisdiction is the authority the courts are given to hear certain kinds of cases. Federal courts have jurisdiction over cases involving federal laws.
- What is civil law?
- concerns disputes between two or more individuals
- What are four guiding principles of the American legal system?
- 1) Equal justice under the law
treat all persons alike
2) Due process of law
law must be applied in fair
3) Adversary system
court room has defense and
prosecutor-one on each side
4) Presumption of innocence
innocent until proven guilty
- Define criminal law?
- When the United states charges someone with the breaking of a federal law
- What is the role of the President in making foreign policy?
- The President derives power to formulate foreign policy from two sources. The Constitution lists presidential powers. Secondly because he is head of the world's superpower he is an important world leader.
- Define constitutional law?
- Deals with laws related to the meaning and application the the United States Constitution.
- Briefly describe how Congress is organized to carry out its business?
- The task of Congress is to make laws. Complex rules and a structure of leadership enable congress to carry out its lawmaking duties.
- What is a consulate?
- The office that promotes a nation's business interests in a foreign country and safeguards its nation's travelers in that country.
- Where does the government spend money?
- National defense
Direct benefit payments
Grants to states/localities
- Qualifications to be the President of United States are....
- Natural born citizen
35 years or older
resident of US for 14 years
should have these also
know importance of money
have political beliefs
positive personal characteristics
- How is a president elected?
- Candidate campaigns to get selected to run in primary
Campaigns to get popular vote
Senators/Representatives must cast their electoral votes for him (based on popular vote in their area)
Must have 270 electoral votes to win
- What are 5 Constitutional powers of the President?
- Commander in chief of armed forces
Appoints (with Senate consent) heads of executive departments
Can pardon people convicted of federal crimes
Makes treaties with advice and consent of Senate
Calls Congress into special sessions as needed
- Seven major duties or roles of the President
- Appointing Cabinet members
Using executive order as needed
Impounding money from Congress spending
Submitting a budget to Congress
Commander of armed forces
Political party leader
Chief diplomat with other nations
Chief economic planner
- Who are lobbyists? What do they do?
- A lobbyist is a political persuader. who directly contacts politicians in the outer room or lobby of the capitol
- What is a political party?
Differences of one party, two party, multiparty system
- Political party-group of people with broad common interests who organize to win elections, control government and/or influence it
One party system-only the government to set policies. no alternatives
Two party system-two major parties like Republican/Democrats
Multiparty system-multiple parties
- List the qualifications to serve in the Senate
- being at least 30 years old, being a U.S. citizen for nine years and a resident of the state from which he or she is elected. Senators serve six year terms.
- How is the number of representatives determined for each house?
- Representatives are appointed according to population
Senators- 2 from each state
- What is Congressional redistricting?
- The process of setting up new district lines after apportionment
- Name the two Senators from Michigan?
- Carl Levin
- Who are Michigan's Representatives in the House?
- Bart Stupak (D-MI-1)
Peter Hoekstra (R-MI-2)
Vernon Ehlers (R-MI-3)
Dave Camp (R-MI-4)
Dale Kildee (D-MI-5)
Fred Upton (R-MI-6)
Nick Smith (R-MI-7)
Michael Rogers (R-MI-8)
Joseph Knollenberg (R-MI-9)
Candice Miller (R-MI-10)
Thaddeus McCotter (R-MI-11)
Sander Levin (D-MI-12)
Carolyn Kilpatrick (D-MI-13)DETROIT
John Conyers (D-MI-14) DETROIT
John Dingell (D-MI-15)
- Can you make a generalization about the members of Congress?
- Nearly half of the members of Congress are lawyers
- Name the leadership officers in each House.
- Representatives- Speaker of the House
Senate- Vice President
- Differentiate between the expressed powers of Congress and the implied powers.
- expressed powers are powers that are carefully listed in the Constitution,Implied powers are powers that are shared with the executive and judicial branches
- Where are the enumerated powers of Congress found?
- In the Constitution of the US
- Explain the elastic clause
- a clause that gives Congress the right to make all laws "necessary and proper" to carry out the powers expressed in the other clauses of Article I
- What action can the President take on a proposed bill?
- The President can veto or approve a bill or send it back to Congress
- What are interest groups and how do they influence outcome of bills?
- Interest groups are a group of people who share common goals and organize to influence government.
Their money and power can influence whether a bill is passed or not by exerting their influence
- Discuss the limits that were placed on the government with the Magna Carta
- provided for protection against unjust punishment and the loss of life, liberty and property except according to the law.
Taxes could not be levied without popular consent
- Did political rights granted to citizens in England apply to all citizens or groups?
- The Magna Carta originally only applied to nobility, but was later applied to others; One of the major causes of the American revolution was was that the English colonists felt that their rights had been deprived
- How did the English Bill of Rights affect English citizens?
- the Bill of rights set clear limits on what the ruler could and could not do.
- How did the ideas of John Locke influence US government?
- His ideas were regarded as political truths by Colonial leaders
- On what basis did John Locke belive that governments get their power from the people?
- That people contracted among themselves to form governments to protect their natural rights and that they could change governments if they felt those rights were not being protected.
- What is a colony?
- a group of people sent out by a state to a new territory
- In which ways did colonial government influence the development of the United States government?
- written constitution
a legislature of elected
the separation of powers between the
governor and the legislature
- Discuss how the Magna Carta, the English Bill of Rights, the ideas of John Locke, the Mayflower Compact helped to influence the American colonial rebellion against Great Britain.
- All of these documents, assured the colonists of their right to have a government that protected their natural rights, and government was not doing what the people had wanted it to do.
- What caused the American colonists to declare their independence from great Britain?
- The Boston Tea Party
- Explain the purposes of the Declaration of Independence?
- it was a statement of the reasons for independence for the American colonists from Great Britain
- Why did the Articles of Confederation fall as an adequate plan of government?
- Because they had too many weaknesses. Congress did not have the power to levy or collect taxes, nor the power to regulate trade, Congress could not force anyone to obey the laws it passed, laws needed approval of 9 out of the 13 states to pass, amending the Articles required all the states consent, no executive branch, no national courts
- What was the significance of the Three-fifths Compromise?
- settled a disagreement over how to determine how many representatives each state would have in the House. It stated that three-fifths of the slave population was to be counted for both taxes and representation
- Discuss the status of women in the 18th century in the US?
- Women were not given power, the often did not even have any say in their own household.
- What is the basic structure of the Constitution?
- simple and brief
- What is the purpose of the Preamble of the Constitution?
- states why the Constitution was written.
- What did the first three articles of the Constitution establish?
- The three branches of government
- List the qualifications to serve in the House of Representatives
- being at least 25 years old, being a citizen of the U.S. for seven years and a resident of the state from which he or she is elected. House members serve two-year terms
- Name the document that established limited government in England.
- Magna Carta
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