Glossary of Government Class
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- What are some characteristics of the Articles of Confederation?
- -Formed a "league of friendship" among the states.
-Allowed each state to retain it's sovereignty and independence.
-State power was supreme over the federal.
- What are some failures of the Articles of Confederation?
- -No executive or judicial branch.
-Satisfied many people except the wealthy.
-Could not defend themselves because congress couldn't put together an army and states who were away from trouble wouldn't send aid to states that were.
-States competed with each other for commercial advantage and almost drove the U.S. into bankruptcy.
-State legislatures were too powerful and varying that it led to Shay's Rebellion.
-Led to the question, "Should America ba an agricultural or commercial country?"
- What is Shay's Rebellion?
- -Boston merchants loaned Massachusetts money during war and demanded to be paid back. This forced Massachusetts to levy high taxes on it's inhabitants.
-Farmers were unable to pay what they owed the state of Massachusetts so Massachusetts was going to forclose on all farmers' lands that could not be paid for.
-Daniel Shays, a farmer, went to the Springfield arsenal to get weapon and revolt. He and his rioters were killed by his message had been conveyed.
-RELIEF WAS GIVEN TO THE FARMERS THE NEXT ELECTION!
- What were some of the basic agreements at the constitutional convention?
- -The government is too weak, make it stronger.
-Didn't want anarchy or tyranny.
-Government should be a republic,indirect democracy.
-Three separate branches- legislative, executive and judicial. Judicial being the weakest of the three parts.
- What were some of the issues encountered in cases of representation?
- -Large states wanted a government they could control.
-Small states didn't want to be controlled.
-The Virginia Plan
-New Jersey Plan
-The Great Compromise
- What were the stipulations of the Virginia Plan?
- -The legislative branch would be divided into two parts. In both parts, the number of members would be determined by the population in the state.
- What were the stipulations of the New Jersey Plan?
- -There would be only one house in the legislative branch and each state would get one man of representation.
- What was the Great Compromise?
- -As a result of the Viginia and New Jersey Plan and despair of not resolving the matter, they compromised to have two houses. In one house the members would be based on population and elected to office by voters. In the other representation would be equal in each state.
- What was the 3/5 compromise?
- -Because of the issue of representation and the enormous slave population in the south, it was important for the south to be able to count slaves as part of the population. The north said no and the south said yes. Again to reach a compromise it was agreed upon that 3/5 of the slave population could be counted as part of the "true population."
- What was the social contract theory?
- -An implied agreement between the people and their government that they will create a certain type of government.
- What is federalism?
- -The division of power between the federal government and the various state governments.
- What is the separation of powers?
- -The power to make, administer and judge laws in the national government was divided into four different parts. The legislative, executive and judicial branches. Furthermore, the legislative branch was broken into two different houses.
- What is the system of checks and balances?
- -Each of the four parts has different responsibilities than the other three and these responsibilities overlap. This helps the national government keep itself in check and prevents any one entity from controlling it all.
- What is the difference between federalists and anti-federalists?
- -Federalists were those who favored the constitution and the separation of federal and state governments. Federalists dubbed those who didn't support the constitution anti-federalists implying that they didn't want a separation of powers.
- What is the bill of rights?
- -The first ten ammendments to the constitution giving rights such as speech, press, assembly, religion,against unreasonable search and seizure, the right to counsel, and jury trial in civil cases. There have been 27 ammendments to the constitution in its history.
- What are the federalist papers?
- -A series of essays written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison and John Jay. Written to convince delegates to the convention to vote for ratification.
- What are bills of attainder?
- -Legislative acts rather than judicial trials pronouncing specific persons guilty of crimes.
- What is the due process clause?
- -Part of the fifth ammendment. Guarantees those suspected of criminal acts a fair trial by grand jury and representation by a lawyer.
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