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Glossary of Government Chapter 13 Judicial Branch

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jurisdiction
the right to interpret and apply the law
exclusive jurisdiction
the authority of the federal courts alone to hear and rule in certain areas
concurrent jurisdiction
the authority to hear cases shared by federal and state courts
original jurisdiction
the court's authority to hear cases on appeal
civil law
the type of law dealing with the rights and relationships of private citizens, monatary settlements
criminal law
the type of law dealing with crimes and providing for their punishment
judicial review
the power of the courts to establish the constitutionality of national, stat, or local acts of government, Marbury vs. Madison
strict constructionist
the view that judges ought to base their decisions on a narrow interpretation of the language of the Constitution
loose constructionist
the view that judges have considerable freedom in interpreting the constitution
writ of mandamus
a court order that commands a government official to take a particular action
constitutional court
a federal court with constitutionaly based powers and whose judges serve for life (supreme court, court of appeals, district courts)
legislative court
a specialized court established to hear cases about and execute the legislative powers of congress
grand jury
a group of people who evaluate whether there is enough evidence against a person to order him or her to stand trial
petit jury
a jury that decides on individual's innocence or guilt; a trial jury
senatorial courtesy
the practice in which a presidential nomination is submitted initially for approval to the senators from the nominee's state
3 ways cases get to the supreme court
1)original jurisdiction (embassadors, state vs state)
2)writ of cert (to make more certain, rule of four)
3) certificate, lower court doesn't know how to rule
majority opinion
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