Glossary of Government Ch. 2-4

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govt is not all powerful; it is restricted in what it may do; each individual has rights govt cant take away
limited govt
govt should serve the will of the poeple; people should have a voice in what govt should do
representative govt
Great Charter forced on King John of england by his barons in 1215; established power of monarch was not absolute, guaranteed trial by jury, and due process to the nobility
Magna Carta
Doct prepared by parliament and signed by King Charles I of england in 1628; challenged idea of divine right of kings and declared even monarch was subject to laws of land
Petition of Right
doct written by parliament and agreed on by william and mary of england in 1689, designed to prevent abuse of power by english monarchs; forms basis for American govt and politics today
English Bill of Rights
a city's basic law, it's constitution; written grant of authority from king
adj describing a legislative body composed of two chambers
organized by proprietor-person to whom king had made a grant of land
adj describing legislative body with one chamber
joining of several groups for a common purpose
plan proposed by ben franklin in 1754 that aimed to unite 13 colonies for trade, military, and other purposes; plan turned down by colonies and crown
Albany Plan of Union
refusal to buy or sell certain products or services
people are source of any and all govtal power, govt can exist only with consent of governed
popular sovereignty
plan of govt adopted by continental congress after american revolution; established "firm league of friendship" among states but allowed few impt powers to central govt
Articles of Confederation
formal approval, final consent to effectiveness to a constitution, amendment, or treaty
presiding officer
group af delegates who drafted US constitution at Philly convention in 1787
plan presented by Vir. at const. conv.; called for 3 branch govt. with bicameral leg. in which each state's membership would be determined by pop or financial support for central govt
Virginia Plan
plan presented as alt. to Vir. plan at const. conv.; called for unicameral leg. in which each state would be equally represented
New Jersey Plan
agreement during const. conv. that congress would be senate (rep equally) and house (rep state pop)
Connecticut Compromise
agreement to const. conv to count a slave as 3/5 a person to determine state pop
Three Fifths Compromise
agreement during const. conv. protecting slave holders; denied congress power to tax export of goods from any state and for 20 yrs the power to act on the slave trade
Commerce and Slave Trade Compromise
persons who supported retification of Constitution in 1787-1788
persons who opposed ratification on constitution in 1787-1788
least number of members who must be present for a leg. body to conduct business; majority
numbered sections of a doct; unamended contitution is divided into 7
govt and those who govern must obey law; rule of law
concept that holds govt. and officers always subject to law
rule of law
executive, leg., and judicail powers are divided among three independent and coequal branches of govt
separation of powers
system of overlapping powers of leg., exec., and jud. branches to permit each branch to check actions of others
checks ang balances
chief executive's power to reject a bill passed by a leg.
power of a court to determine constitutionality of a govtal action
judicial review
contrary to constitutional provision and so illegal, null and void, of no force and effect
system of govt in which written constitution divides power between a central/national govt and several local govts
a change in, or addition to, a constitution of law
change or addition that becomes part of the written language of the constitution itself through one of four methods in const.
formal amendment
the first 10 amendments to const.
Bill of Rights
custom that senate will not approve a presidential appointment oppsed by a majority party senator from state in which appointee would serve
senatorial courtesy
pact made by pres. directly with head of foreign state; binding internatl agreement with force of law but which-unlike treaty- doesnt require senate consent
executive agreement
formal agreement between two or more sovereign states
group of persons chosen in each State and DC every four years who make formal selection of pres. and Vice
electoral college
presidential advisory body, traditionally made up of heads of executive departments and other officers
principle of fed.; constal provisions by which govtal powers are divided on a geographic basis-in US between natl and state govt
division of powers
those powers, expressed, implied or inherent granted to natl govt by const.
delegated powers
those delegated powers of natl govt spelled out expressly in const.; enumerated powers
expressed powers
delegated powers of natl govt suggested by expressed powers in const.; those "necessary and proper" to carry out expressed powers
implied powers
powers const. is presumed to have delegated to natl govt b/c it is the govt of a sovereign state within worl community
inherent powers
powers that const. does not grant to natl govt and does not deny to states
reserved powers
powers that can be exercised by natl govt alone
exclusive powers
powers that both natl and state govt possess and exercise
concurrent powers
congressional act directing people of US territory to frame a propsed state const. as a step towards admission to the Union
enabling act
congressional act admitting a new state to the Union
act of admission
grants of federal money or other resources to states, cities, counties, and other local units
grants-in-aid program
form of federal monetary aid under which congress gave a shaer of federal tax revenue,with virtually no restrictions, to states, cities, counties, and townships
revenue sharing
type of federal grants-in-aid; made for some specific, closely defined purpose
categorical grant
type of federal grant-in-aid for some particular but broadly defined area of public policy
block grant
type of federal grant-in-aid; made for specific projects to states, localities, and private agencies who apply for them
project grant
formal agreement entered into with consent of congress, between or among states, or between state and foreign state
interstate compact
const's requirement that each state accept public acts, records, and judicial proceedings of every other state
Full Faith and Credit Clause
legal process by which a fugitive from justice in one state is returned to that state
const's stipulation that all citizens are entitled to certain "pr. and imms." regardless of their state of residence; no state can draw unreasonable distinctions between its own residents and those persons who happen to live in other states
Priveleges and Immunities Clause

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