Glossary of Global Physical Environment Unit 1
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- What are the four parts of the earth system?
- 1. Lithosphere
- Something consisting many individual parts fuctioning as a complex whole. A system exists when couplings, which connect state variables, for a complete circle.
- Open System
- Systems that require inputs and give off outputs, of energy and matter.
- Closed System
- Systems that do not have any inputs or outputs.
- External Forcings
- Things that have the ability to affect a system, but are not affected by the system.
- Positive Feedback Loops
- Feedback loops that amplify the original trend. They promote instability.
- Negative Feedback Loops
- Feedback loops that counteract the original trend. They act as stabilizers.
- Angular distance north or south of the equatorial plane. Also called a parallel.
- Angular distance east or west of an arbitrary point called the prime meridian. Also called a meridian.
- Great Circle
- Formed by a plane that intersects earth and crosses through Earth's center. The shortest distance bt/any two points on earth is a great circle.
- Small Circle
- Formed by a plane that intersects Earth and does not cross through the Earth's center.
- Map Ratio
- based on the size of the ratio:
1:20 large ratio
1:20,000,000 small ratio
- What four things can map projections distort?
- 1. Distance
- What are the four kinds of map projections?
- 1. Cylindrical- preserves direction, compass bearing draws as straight line
2. Planar- there is 1 point with no distortion, can only map 1/2 of earth.
3. Conic- Area is preserved.
4. Oval/Tabular- spreads out distortion to make map look "normal"
- Mercator vs. Gnomonic
- Mercator- the line of constant bearing appears straight. (rhumb line)
Gnomonic- shortest distance is a straight line (great circle)
- How were they able to make the temperature curve for the last 1000 years?
- Using the rings of bristlecone pine trees, which vary in size according to temperature.
- What did Svante Arrhenius do?
- He was the first person to think that CO2 had an effect on temperature.
- What did G.S. Callendar do?
- Published a book that said humans were producing increased amounts of CO2.
- How much did past scientists think that the global average temp. could change with doubling CO2 concentration?
- Between 1 and 6 degrees C
- When and where were CO2 concentrations measured for the first time
- Antarctica and Hawaii, in 1957
- How does el nino affect atmospheric CO2 concentration?
- It increases it, this is due to a lack or rain and fires, which kill plants.
- Positive water vapor feedback loop
- Earth is warmer - Air holds more water vapor - water vapor traps heat in the atmosphere - earth warms
- Negative water vapor feedback loop
- Earth is warmer - more clouds form - clouds reflect more insolation - earth cools.
- Positive ice feedback loop
- Earth is warmer - ice and snow melts - earth's albedo decreases - more insolation is absorbed - earth warms
- How much do computer models predict that earth's average temperature will change if CO2 conc. is doubled?
- 1.5 to 4.5 degrees C
- Definition of minerals?
- Inorganic, naturally occuring, crystalline, solid
- Major mineral groups
- Major Silicates
- Quartz - SiO
Feldspar - SiO plus Ca, K, Na
Mafic Minerals - SiO + Mg,Fe High Density
Clay - SiO, Al others
- Major Carbonates
- Calcite (CaCO3)
- Definition of Rocks?
- made up mainly of minerals, but also contain other stuff (coal, volcanic glass, etc.)
- Three major classes of rocks?
- Types of igneous rocks depending on where they harden?
- Extrusive - harden on the surface of earth
Intrusive - harden within earth
- Two igneous rock examples
- Basalt- dense, high mafic mineral content, extrusive igneous rock
Granite- feldspar and quartz, intrusive rock, (large crystals)
- Two classes of sedimentary rocks?
- Clastic- form from sediment - conglomerate, sandstone, shale (mud)
Chemical Sedimentary Rocks- form from biological processes and dissolved ions (limestone, dolostone)
- What are metamorphic rocks?
- They form from igneous or sedementary rocks under high pressure and/or temperature.
- Deeper part
- Surface Layer
- Surface Layer, rigid, brittle
- Deeper layer, plastic
- How are mantle and crust differentiated?
- by their response to seismic waves
- How are the lithosphere and asthenosphere differentiated?
- behavior under stress
- Oceanic Crust
- Mainly basalt (high mafic mineral content), dense, thin layer
- Continental Crust
- Mainly Granite, less dense, thick layer
- What are the three different kinds of plate boundaries?
- What is a divergent boundary?
- One is in the atlantic oceean, they form at upwellings of magma, which hardens in the lithosphere causing the ocean floor to move apart, dense basalt forms
- What is a transform boundary?
- when plates slide against each other, one is on the west coast of california
- What is a convergent boundary?
- Oceanic/Continental- (subduction)ocenic plate dives (denser) and magma forms as it melts, causing volcanoes
Continental/continental- (collision) causes major surface deformation and mountains form, formation of metamorphic rocks.
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