Glossary of Global History Test 3
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- a period of European history lasting fromm about 1300 to 1600, during which renewed interest in classical culture led to far-reaching changes in art, learning, and views of the world.
- a Renaissance intellectual movement in which thinkers studied and focused on human potential and achievements.
- concerned with worldly rather than spiritual matters
- people who supported artists, especially financially
- The Courtier
- a book written by Baldassare Castgilione that taught how to be a Renaissance man by excelling in many fields.
- the everyday lanuage of people in a region or country.
- Leonardo da Vinci
- a painter, inventor, scientist, and sculptor who painted the famous Mona Lisa and the Last Supper. He planned scholarly works and great feats of engineering in his notebooks
- he was a painter, sculptor, architect, and poet who was famous for the way he portrayed the body.
- Niccolo Machiavelli
- the writer of The Prince, where he examined the imperfect conduct of human beings and how a ruler can gain power and keep it in spite of his enemies.
- The Prince
- written by Niccolo Machiavelly, this book served as a political handbook for rulers to learn how to gain power and keep it in spite of their enemies.
- written by Thomas Moore, this book is about an imaginary land where greed, corruption, and war have been weeded out. Also, in Greek, utopia means "no place."
- William Shakespeare
- the most famous writer of the Elizabethan Age, who wrote many famous plays that were performed in the Globe Thearer, and they examined human flaws. Some of his tragedies are Romeo and Juliet, and Macbeth, and one of his comedies is The Taming of the Shrew.
- Johann Gutenberg
- a craftsman from Mainz, Germany, who developed the printing press around 1440 that could produce hundreds of copies of a single work.
- Columbian Exchange
- the global transfer of plants, animals, and diseases that occured during the European colonization of the Americas.
- an economic system based on private ownership and on the investment of money in business ventures in order to make a profit.
- Joint-stock company
- a business in which investors pool their wealth for a common putpose, and then share the profits.
- an economic policy under which nations sought to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver by selling more goods than they bought.
- Favorable balance of trade
- an economic situation in which a country sells more goods abroad than it buys from abroad.
- Geocentric theory
- in the Middle Ages, the earth centered view of the universe in which scholars believed that the earth was an immovable object located at the center of the universe.
- Scientific Revolution
- a major change in european thought, starting in the mid-1500's in which the study of the natural began to be characterized by careful observation and the questioning of accepted beliefs.
- Heliocentric Theory
- the idea that the earth and the other planets revolve around the sun.
- Galileo Galilei
- an Italian scientist who studied astronomy and published a book called Starry Messenger, which described his observations. he believed Corpernicus' ideas but had to say that they were wrong in court because the church did not agree with them.
- Scientific Method
- a logical procedure for gathering information about the natural world in which experimentation and observation are used to test a hypothesis.
- Isaac Newton
- the great English scientist who helped bring together a single theory of motion. He studied mathematics and physics at Cambridge University, and pulished his ideas in The Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy.
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