Glossary of GeologyReview2

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What is a ferromagnesian silicate?
The dark silicates. Minerals that contain inons of iron. Because of iron they are dark and have greater specific gravity. Most common dark silicates are: olivine, the pyroxenes, the amphiboles (also called hornblende) and biotite mica.
What is the most abundant type of rock-forming minerals?
What are the potassium feldspars?

What are the plagioclase feldspars?
potassium, aluminum silicate

Plag.clase feldspars range fro socium, aluminum silicate to calcium, aluminum silicate
What are some examples of ferromagnesian silicates?
biotite mica
olivines (peridot)
Rock forming minerals
Tell me about feldspars.
Feldspars are aluminum silicates w/sodium, calcium or potassium. They are the MOST abundant silicates at @ 5% of the earth's crust. Ex: potassium feldspar and plagioclase felspars
What are rock-forming minerals?
All major constituents of common rocks - quartz,potassium feldspar,mica
Show me the plagioclase series chart
What type of minerals have the most complex and largest molecules?
What are nonferromagnesian silicates? What are some examples?
NF silicates contain no iron or magnesium. Examples are mica, talc, clay minerals (porcelain made from clay and thickner for McDonalds milkshakes) quartz
Tell me about native elements
Minerals that conist of a single element. Ex: GOLD, SILVER, PLATINUM, COPPER, SULFUR, CARBON (DIAMONDS and GRAPHITE which is really CARBON)
What are ore minerals?

Give two examples.
Ores contain a useful metallic element or elements and can be mined, processed and sold at a profit. Most ores are mined to extract metals minerals. Ex: copper ore and iron ore.
Tell me about halides
Halides consist of a halogen gas combined w/ an alkali metal. Ex. HALITE (rock salt)which is sodium chloride. FLOURITE (calcium flouride) This is not a rock forming mineral and is used in toothpaste.
What are the silicates that are also important minerals?
amphibole biotite mica
clay minerals muscovite
olivine pyroxene
potassium feldspars
sodium/calcium plagioclase feldspars
What do non-ferromagnesian silicates look like and what are they made of? Give a few examples.`
Lighter colored than non-ferromag. silicates
Silicates that don't contain iron or magnesium.
Ex: muscovite mica, talc, clay mineral, quartz, feldspars
What are non-rock forming minerals and/or groups?
Native elements (gold,
What are two important silicates?
Ferromagnesian Silicates (they contain magnesium)
Non-ferromagnesian silactes (those that don't contain magnesium)
Tell me about silicates.
Definition: Silicates consist of at least silicon and oxygen and usually one or more of the following: aluminum, iron, calcium, sodium, potassium, magnesium. Other elements might also be present.
What do ferromagnesian silicates look like and what are they made of? Give a few examples.
Normally dark colored
Contain iron and/or magnesium
Ex: olivines (peridot), pyroxenes, amphibooe, biotite mica, garnets
Tell me about the structure of silicates.
Silicates have the most complex and largest molucules of any mineral group. There are a great many different structures, therefore, many different silicates. with a great range of physical properties. brittle-quartz, powder-talc, bendable-mica.
Tell me about sulfates
Sulfates consist of any appropriate element combined with sulfate ion Ex. are GYPSUM whose main use is sheetrock in houses which is also called plasterboard and BARIUM SULFATE which is used in x-rays of the intestines. It is non rock forming.
Tell me about carbonates
Carbonates contain any appropriate element combined with carbonate ions. They are non-silicate rock-forming minerals. Examples: CALCITE which is calcium carbonate CaCO The main use of calcium carbonate is to make concrete. Limestone is made from ca.carb. and is also used as a dietary supplement. DOLOMITE is calcium, magnesium carbonate
What are rock-forming mineral groups?
Which is more abundant in the earth's crust, rock forming or non-rock forming minerals?
Rock forming are the most abundant.
Tell me about sulfides
Sulfides consiste of any appropriate element combined with sulfur. There are more ore minerals in this group than any other. Most important group of ore minerals.Ex: PYRITE(fool's gold), GALENA (lead ore) and MO state mineral SPHALARITE (zinc ore) used to make galvanized steel, smells like rotten eggs CHALCOPYRITE (copper and iron ore). Another type of fool's gold, tarnishes to different colores. When smelted you get copper and iron.
Tell me about oxides
Oxides consist of any appropriate element combined with oxyden. They are non-rock forming.
Ex: A. Ice (water)
B.Iron oxides which are (in order of iron content)1magnetite,2hematite,3limoniteThe only iron ore that is magnetic is magnetite. All hematites give reddish borwn scratch. Hematite is the most common.
C.Aluminum oxides. Ex:BAUXITE (aluminum ore) not pretty and it is the primary source of aluminum, CORUNDUM used as an abrasive plus two gem varieties-ruby and sapphire
What are ore minerals?
Ore minerals contain a useful metallic element or elements and can be mined, processed and sold at a profit. Most ores are mined to extract metals such as copper ore and iron ore.
Which of the mineral groups contain ore minerals?
Which mineral group containes more ore than any other?
List the mineral groups.
What is magma?
Underground liquid rock.
Where does magma come from?
Magma forms deep underground in the lower crust or upper mantle where temperatures are much hotter.
What is magma made of?
LIQUID COMPONENTS: mainly molten silicate minerals such as feldspars, quarts, mica and ferromagnesiums
GASEOUS COMPONENTS: 70% water steam, 20% carbon dioxide.
What are the two most abundant gases dissolved in magma?
Water - h20 - 70%

Carbon dioxide - 20%
What is viscosity?
The measure of a fluid's resistance to flow.
What are the mineral groups that contain ore minerals?
Which mineral group contains more ore than any other?
Which mineral groups contain ore minerals? Which groupp contains more than any other?
Why does magma most upward toward the Earth's surface?

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