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Glossary of Geography Vocab Words Chapter 12

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city-state
in anciet Greece, independent community consisting of a city and the surrounding lands.
middle ages
the period of European history from about A.D.500 to about 1500 A.D.
feudalism
in medieval Europe and Japan system of government in which powerful lords gave land to nobles in return for pledges of loyalty.
Crusades
series of religious wars in which Europe Christians tried to retake Palestine from Muslim rule.
Renaissance
in Europe, a 300 year period of renewed interest in classical learning and the arts, beginning in the 1300's
Reformation
religious movement that began in Germany in the 1400's, leading to the establishment to Protestant churches.
Enlightnment
A movement during the 1700's emphasizing the importance of reason and questioning traditions and values.
industrial capitalism
an economic system in which business leaders use profits to expand their companies
communism
society based on equality in which workers would control industrial production
reparations
A payment for damages
Holocaust
the mass killings of 6 million Jews by Germany's Nazi leaders during World War II.
Cold War
power struggle between the Soviet Union and the United States after World War II
European Union
an organization whose goal is to unite Europe so the goods, services, and workers can move freely among member countries.
Good Friday Peace Agreement
paved the way for Protestant and Roman Catholic communities to share political power.
romanticism
artistic style emphasizing individual emotions that developed in Europe in the late 1700's and early 1800's as a reaction to industrialization
realism
artistic style portraying everyday life that developed in Europe during the mid-1800's
welfare state
nation in which the government assumes major responsibility for peoples welfare in area's such as health and education.
ethnic group
group of people who share the common ancestry, language, religion, customs, or combination of such characteristics
ethnic cleansing
the expelling from a country or killing of rival ethnic groups
refugee
one who flees his or her home for safety
urbanization
the movement of people from rural area's into cities

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