Glossary of Geography 12 Vocabulary

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The layer of air surrounding the earth,
The solid part of the planet.
- core
The part of the geosphere that is made up of water.
The zone of the planet where life is found.
a unique community within the ecosphere
Open system
a system that is not seperate from its environment but transfers matter into and out of it
Closed system
a system where there is no transfer of matter into or out of a structure
the earth, including:
Absolute location
Geographers use latitude and longitude to pinpoint a place's absolute, or exact, location.
Relative location
Relative locations deal with the interactions that occur between and among places.

It refers to the many ways - land, water, technology - that places are connected
Topographic map
A map type showing a limited set of features but including at the minimum information about elevations or landforms.

Examples: contour maps.

Topographic maps are common for navigation and for use as reference maps.
Mercator projection
A Mercator projection is a type of map in which the true compass direction are kept intact (lines of latitude and longitude intersect at right angles), but areas are distorted (for example, polar areas look much larger than they really are).
Planar projection
A planar projection is a type of map in which the details of the globe are projected onto a plane (a flat surface) yielding a rectangular-shaped map. Cylindrical maps have a lot of distortion towards the edges.
Cylindrical projection
A type of map projection in which features on a sphere are projected onto a cylinder. The cylinder can be either tangent to the sphere, for which contact is along a great circle path, or pass through the sphere, for which contact is along two circles.
Conical projection
Conic projection: a map projection of the globe onto a cone with its point over one of the earth's poles
The angular distance between an imaginary line around a heavenly body parallel to its equator and the equator itself
the angular distance between a point on any meridian and the prime meridian at Greenwich
Prime Meridian
An imaginary line running from north to south through Greenwich, England, used as the reference point for longitude
Scale ratio
- A proportion used in determining the dimensional relationship of a representation to that which it represents: a world map with a scale of 1:4,560,000.
- A calibrated line, as on a map or an architectural plan, indicating such a proportion.
Compass rose
The resulting figure when the complete 360° directional system is developed as a circle with each degree graduated upon it, and with the 000° indicated as True North.
- True North is also known as true rose.
A minute is: * a unit of time equal to 1/60th of an hour and to 60 seconds
1/60 of a minute; the basic unit of time adopted under the Systeme International d'Unites
A gazetteer is a geographic dictionary index; a combination atlas/almanac. It typically contains information concerning the geographic makeup of a country or region, and the social statistics, e.g. population, GDP, literacy rate, etc. They can be found in reference sections of most libraries.
Easting & Northing
- One of two geographic coordinate values (the other being northing) used to specify the exact location of a feature on a map.
- Easting and northings are specified as x,y coordinates receptively for universal transverse mercator and state plane coordinate systems.
Contour lines
- A line on a topographic map representing a certain elevation at a certain location.
- Space between two contour lines represents a change in elevation by the interval the contour lines represent.
Spot height
- Spot heights are used for the rough assessment of height differences. The height is given to the nearest metre.
Bench mark
- survey mark made on a monument having a known location and elevation.
-serves as a reference point for surveying.
Six-digit grid reference
UTM grid reference
The sial is the part of the crust that is above water. It's a continental plate floating over the globe.

he sial is different in that it can begin and end where the plates do.
The sima is the layer of the Earth's crust that covers the entire planet.

You can think of the sima as the ocean floors. Under the sima is the mantle.
The third layer of the atmosphere above Earth's surface, generally found between altitudes of 50 km and 80-85 km and characterized by temperature decreasing with altitude.
Mohorovicic Discontinuity
Is the junction which separates the Earth's crust and mantle. Its depth is about 10 kilometres below the ocean basin.
A layer of soft but solid, mobile rock comprising the lower part of the upper mantle from about 100 to 350 kilometers beneath the Earth's surface.

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