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Glossary of Geographic Terms in Skills Handbook (S1)

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Define Globe.
a scale model of Earth useful for looking at the entire planet or at large areas of its surface
Define grid.
the pattern of lines that circle the planet in east-west and north-south directions
Define latitude.
a measure of distance north or south of the prime meridian.
Define longitude.
a measure of distance east or west of the Prime Meridian.
Define Equator.
the imaginary line of latitude that lies halfway between the North and South
Poles and circles the globe.
Define Meridians
synnonomous with longitude lines which measure distance east and west but run north and south and connect at the poles.
Define degree.
a unit of latitude and longitude; 1/360th of a great circle. A degree is composed of 60 minutes with a minute having 60 seconds
Define hemisphere.
half the earth; divided north and south by the Equator and east to west by the Prime Meridian.
Define island.
a body of land surrounded by water. It may be small ( as in coastal islands) or as large as a continent ( Australia and Greenland)
Define ocean.
the entire body of salt water which covers approx. 72% of earth's surface.
It is subdivided into 4 main bodies: Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, and Arctic and their extensions into Antarctica
Define map.
a flat diagram of the Earth's surface that has two main types: Physical & Political
Define atlas.
an organized collection of maps in one book.
Define map projection.
the various ways Cartographers present our round planet on flat surfaces. All types have some distortion of scale. The Robinson Projection type has the least distortion.
Define Great-Circle Route.
an imaginary line which is the shortest route between any two points on the planet. Used by airplanes and ships for navigation.
Define directional indicator.
shows which directions are north, south, east,and west. The primary directions are called "Cardinal" with secondary directions called "Intermediate" ex. northeast
Define scale.
an element of a map that indicates distances between points on the map.
Define legend.
an element of a map that explains what the symbols on the map represent; also called the "key"
Define compass rose.
a directional indicator that has arrows pointing north, south, east, and west.
Define Mental Map.
a map that we create and see in our minds to help us make sense of the world.

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