Glossary of Geog Final Exam 3

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2 themes of South Asian realm
population and cultural diversity
Monsoon Asia
the lower lands of South Asia; interior has massive mountains and plateaus
the seasonal reversal of wind and moisture flows; typical of certain subtropical and lower mid-latitudes
climatic effects of South Asia's monsoons
amlified by local conditions; it rains more in south than northern parts b/ monsoon moves in then out; winter = dry season; summer = wet season; people concentrated in lowlands towards outer areas b/c it supports population; little rain in interior
6 human impacts shared throughout Monsoon Asia
2)major river systems
3)broad alluvial valleys (soil laid down below river flood)
4)intensive agriculture
5)irrigation systems
6)population density
India's population size/ Demographic Transition Model
2nd most populous in world after US; pakistan = 140 mil; bangladesh = 140 mil;
high growth rate = high birth rate + low death rate = population increases
the 3 realms affected by same massive weather feature:
South Asia; Southeast Asia; East Asia - all affected by monsoons
Monsoon mechanism in South Asia:
continentality; also- location, marginality to Eurasia, seasonality of occurrence, rarity of failures
key crops in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh
India: rice (in wetter areas); wheat (during short wet season); millet (can grow in drier areas and grows very fast)
Pakistan: mixture of wheat and some millet (more dependent on irrigation)
Bangladesh: rice
per person agricultural productivity
is very low; reflects shortage of machinery and abundance of labor
India's Green Revolution
figured out a way to double amount of foodstuff per plant; a diff. way of applying technology; change from country that imports food to one that exports; gains: revolutionized production of food; challenges: each plant --> needed a bigger stem --> required more water --> required more fodder --> need more money;
amplified income of those w/access to money- socioeconomic class had an effect
India's industrial resources
-little coal; very little oil and natl gas; have a lot of labor; pretty good accessibility- diff parts of India are well connected; industry has to be near labor
rural to urban migration in India as a result of 2 things:
push factor: rural poverty
pull factor: urban manufacturing/service employment
-increases demands on infrastructure
-causes extreme income contrasts btwn ppl living in major cities
Mumbai (Bombay)
large city w/much poverty; located on western part of India
Kolkata (Calcutta)
established on margins of Ganges River delta on Hooghly River
-has intense urban activity- overcrowded and w/aging infrastructure; founded for its commercial and defensive site advantages
has crowded streets; cities attractive destinations for migrants- so become overcrowded
India's "silicon plateau"; human creativity combined with entrepreneurial initiative, labor, and technology creates jobs
India: examples of creative ways to create jobs
ex: Toyota going to India for car part production
-Internet call centers
complicating India's econ. changes; is a categorization of hierarchy- 4 castes that you're born into and can't move out of it: brahman, aristocrats, land lords, peasants, untouchables; concept in Hinduism
negative effect of caste on economic change:
the higher degree to which caste system followed, the lower opportunity for ppl w/intrinsic talent to succeed b/c can' leave caste
2 culture hearths in South Asia:
Ganges Delta
Indus Valley
language helpful b/c
changes more slowly than moving population
religion helpful b/c
reveals people's views of world, aspects of life, culture, society, politics
2 langage groupings in South Asia
Dravidian (in southern 1/3 of Asia; has much older presence)
effects of language diversity in S. Asia
majority of ppl speak Hindi, but 15 official languages; lang diversity acts as centrifugal force
4 major religions in S. Asia
-Hinduism -dominates realm; found thru-out India
-Islam -prominent in NE and NW parts of S. Asia
-Buddhism -hardly present; a little in north and some in Sri Lanka; in N and NE margin
-Sikhism - reflects Hinduism and 1 god; on India-Pak border
4 signif pts of Indo-european and Dravidian lang groups:
1)location and past spread
2)many langs in each
3)large numbers in each
4)many exceptions
The Khyber Pass
major land route in n out of S. Asian realm; succession of diffusion waves entered S. Asia from N. West.
High population densities in S. Asia in:
1)Ganges River Vally (Hindustan); -across N. India
2)in Bangladesh on Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta
3)in central Pakistan but lower when away from Indus Valley
Groups that passed Khyber Pass in S. Asia:
-Indo-Europeans about 3500 yrs ago; established Hinduism as dominant religion
-Turkic-speaking ppls - 1000 yrs ago; carried Islam into S. Asia via Persian and Afghanistan and established Mughal Empire
-Mughal Empire spread across all of S. asia in 200 yrs
-European colonial powers tried to stop spread of Islam in 17th/18th cents.
in 1947 - massive cross-border migration; when independence being gained from Britain, old centrifugal forces resurfaced; Muslims wanted country based on Islam
-left unresolved issues and tension
major unresolved issue from partition:
Jammu and Kashmir; 58-yr dispute still unresolved
Kashmir and Jammu (before partition):
1)British colonial rulers claimed rights of ownership
2)Muslims/Hindus coexisted
3)Numerical majority didn't mean political control
Jammu and Kashmir (after Independence/partition)
1) a century ago, Brits sold Kashmir to Hindu maharajah
2) majority of pop = Muslim
3) formal ruler = Hindu maharajah
4) Kashmir's Muslims wanted more secular govt than Pakistan
a forward capital; Pakistan relocated from Karachi to Lahore to Islamabad; well into interior of state;
Pakistan's centrifugal forces (besides Kashmir):
1)spill-over effects of instability in Afghanistan
2)a potential separatist region (Baluchistan)
3)tensions in the Sindh btwn long term residents and those who came after partition
4)variations w/in pakistan (religion, wealth, polit. phil)
Bangladesh's site factors:
1)straddles delta area
2)very flat land and low elevation
3)sits right inside tropic of Cancer
-size of NC; issues = econ. not cult diversity problems
-flat delta land: intensely farmed; severe flooding- keeps soil rich
Sri Lanka
independent island; has centrif. forces based on cult diversity; Buddhist (from N. India arrived in 500 bc) and Hindu in northern edge;
occupies land producing most cash crops;
minority Hindu pop (in north and west) are Dravidian-speaking- include Tamil Tigers (rebels seeking for separate state)
East Asia Realm - least affected by Europe's impress b/c:
Europeans came here very late; were never in control of realm, and powerful regional cultures remained strong throughout
the name China gives itself (Middle Kingdom) reflects 3 things:
1)natl isolaiton
2)long term relative stability
3)a centering culture- goal to find balance btwn opposing cultures
China compared to US in 3 ways:
size, shape, location
China can be split into N-S, E-W quadrants- apply to (5 things):
1) relief/topography
2) climate
3) agriculture
4) pop density
5) cultures
China's topography (east vs west):
east has lowlands
west has huge basins and plateaus (higher lands)
broken in between
China's climate
east is wet/ NE is cool-wet; SE is warm-wet
west is dry/ NE is cool-dry; SE is warm-dry
SE of both China and US in Cf (no dry season, hot summer)
-no west coast so west is drier
-has dry winters b/c of monsoon rains
China's agriculture
reflects patterns of climate
SE dominated by rice and tea/wheat
NE dominated by wheat
west- too cool for growing crops- used for pasture and farming
China's population density
most ppl on eastern side
incredible intensity of land use seen in rice paddies
-rice harvest remains labor intensive activity
China's cultural patterns most diverse in:
Southeastern part
China's earliest core area located there b/c of 2 main rivers
related to East China Plain about 4000 yrs ago; relates to Chang Jiang River and Huang He River
Chang Jiang and Huang He share 3 main things:
1)large rivers
2)fluctuations in flow volume
3)flood their lower course from time to time
Chang Jiang River
-originates in Tibetan Plateau
-flows east, turns south, cuts back and east again
-has fluctuations b/c of monsoon season (adds water in summer)
-Yangtze Gorges - concentrated rivers flow b4 it reached flatter plains; the Three Gorges Reservoir uses topography and size of Chang Jiang
Huang He River
-has greater fluctuations than Chang Jiang and floods lower course frequently
-goes north and passes thru area of soil (loess- windborne, wind deposited soil)-picks up sediment to deposit downstream across N. China Plain
wind-borne, wind deposited soil from Gobi Desert- carried by monsoon winds to loess plateaus and yellow river
4 characteristics of Aeolian soils
1)all small sizes, fine grained particles (b/c wind borne)
2)thickness built by compression over yrs
3)can erode very fast b/c held only by air and sand
4)are quite fertile
2 characteristics of China's loess agricultural landscape
intensive cultivation
potential erosion
3 names for Huang He River:
1)Huang He
2)Yellow River (named by Brits b/c of loess
3)River of Sorrows (related to N. China Plain; sediment builds up ridges- levies get higher than surrounding land- easy to flood and form breaks)
2 main dynasties that controlled China:
1)Han Dynasty (206-220 BC)
2)Qing (Manchu) Dynasty (1644-1911 AD)
Great Wall
built under Qing Dynasty; 3000 mi. long; effective barrier against norther barbarians
the sequence of loss of control in China:
encroachment --> extraterritoriality -->
opium trade -->
disintegration (dynasties collapsed) -->
war and revolution -->
territorial re-integration (partial)
example of extraterritoriality
foreign embassies
China's 4 main current problems
1) pop. growth and numbers
2) related food supply issues
3) industrial resource base and sector change
4) planning, political re-orientation and growth
China's population problems
-1.3 billion pop; annual pop increase 1.7% to 0.6% now;
-China's transitional model moved from late stage 3 to mid stage 4
-done thru one child policy
China's known industrial resources
impressive quality and quantity;
-coal fields, oil, gas fields; manufacturing growth around eastern urban clusters and much more growth possible
China's SEZ - Special Economic Zones
clustered in South (Fujian, guangdong, Xianggong)0 coastal provinces where economic development is very rapid
-coastal region development- major shift in China's planning
China's regional specialization
coastal region: new, consumer industries (tertiary and 2ndary)
central region: heavy industry (2ndary)
Western interior: extraction (primary)
20 mil ppl; changed by econ. development; has experienced rapid growth and become East Asia's predominant entrepot for commerce and finance
sectoral shifts in economy
urban centers contain crowded, traditional settings and tremendous growth in office industries; landscapes of new growth reflect sectoral shifts and China's increased participation in world economy
Hong Kong
in South; held by Brits as colony for 99 yrs- returned to China in '97; success of Hong kong's econ. b/c of site (on coast thats very indented; more places for ships to dock) and situation
-represents China's concentrated coastal zone econ. transformation on country's southern coast
has 6 mil ppl- needed infrastructure investment;
-is important b/c of Pearl River Delta region
grown a lot partly b/c of proximity to Hong Kong
Jakota Triangle
off China's eastern coast; 3 small, econ. powerful states: Japan, Korea, Taiwan
largest of Jakota Triangle by size, population, and econ. power
Japan's settlement sequence
-northern Kyushu
-southern Honshu
-Shikoku and Inland Sea
-Kyoto as capital; gradual spread north
Meiji Restoration (1868)
modernization -> central planning/industrialization
growth -> taxation for infrastructure
empire -> territorial expansion (Taiwan, Korea, NE China)
Japan is archipelago w/4 islands:
Honshu, Hokkaido, Shikoku, Kyushu
Japan's resource categories
agricultural resources (climate, topography, soils)
industrial resources
Japan's climate
favorable for agriculture; weather: humid, affected by monsoon
exception to good weather: tai-fung = typhoon/hurricane -in mid to late summer
-good for agriculture
Japan's topography
agriculture- scattered in interior; best places for agriculture outside edge of country; peripheral
Japan's industrial resources
very few; some coal (useful when it began to industrialize); no serious industrial resources
Japan's location
1 of 2 most beneficial set of factors in helping country's econ. development; has:
1)insularity (interaction, fishing, kamikaze "divine winds" protecting Japan)
2)size -easy interaction btwn ppl; cheap to move by water
3)situation -off coast of E. Asia; relative to China; relative to Pacific Rim; b/c of sea currents-natl to sail from Japan
Japan's human resources
labor factors (quantity, quality)
cultural factors (natl focus, treatment of foreingn ideas)
Tokyo and Yokohama (4 advantages, 1 risk)
largest cluster here; has 50% of Japan's total econ power here, has 4 advantages, 1 disad:
1)Tokyo Bay- extends in southern margin; immense natl harbor protected from storms; busy ports
2)Kanto Plain- largest flat agriculture-suited area in whole country
3)capital city- Tokyo became capital from Kyoto after Meiji Restoration; Tokyo represents Japan's modern economy- has one of world's largest pops
4)central location- Tokyo's in middle of country; equidistant from top and bottom of Japan

Tokyo located adjacent to 3 major active tectonic plates (Eurasian, Pacific, Philippine)- severe earthquakes possible, many near econ core
How did Japan achieve its economic position in world today (5 pts)
2)Emphasis on strengths
-strongly influenced by China; occupied by Japan; divided after WWII btwn US and Soviet Union;
South Korea
-Seoul= modern capital; is an entrepreneurial state; economy= successful and technologically innovative; food stores well stocked
North Korea
-Pyongyan capital of this repressive, rigidly planned, closed, impoverished state; inefficient agriculture, heavily taxed, inadequate for pop
-extreme poverty w/cleanliness; emphasis on symbolism, but little use
Korean War (1950-53) divided Korea along DMZ
Demilitated Zone; a de facto, not a de jure boundary (not by law)
-off coast of China; mountainous country, more agric. land than Japan
-China occupied island 17th-18th century; first 1/2 of 20th cent: controlled by Japan
-Taiwan has rice farming; major ctr of electronics and capital Taipei: modern, crowded city- characteristics of "European culture"
3 themes in Southeast Asia Realm:
1) comparisons w/other dispersed realms
2) "indochina" and indonesia: outside infuences
3) spatial morphology
Southeast Asia (mainland and islands):
mainland: myanmar (burma), thailand, laos, cambodia, vietnam (malaysia, brunei)
islands: philippines, indonesia, singapore (malaysia, brunei)
SE Asia like Middle American realm b/c:
1)both on a continental margin
2)tropical locatin
3)mainland affected by outsiders
SE Asia different from Middle America:
1)Eurasia is not N. America
2)Monsoon effects
3)Outside influence preceded Europe's colonial spread
Indian influence on Southeast Asia:
800-1200 AD; architecture, writing, literature, religions (buddhism, hinduism, islam); -buddhism/hinduism on mainland; islam/christianity also here; greatest impact in WEST and SOUTH; ex: Cambodia
Chinese contributions to Southeast Asia:
people migrated out of Southern China mostly into urban areas; resident pop of Singapore almost entirely of Chinese heritage
spatial morphology - 5 different shapes of countries
compact, protruded, elongated, perforated, fragmented
SE Asia has 4/5 different shapes of countries
Compact: Cambodia- small boundary for large area
Elongated: Vietnam (Chile)- increased border for area enclosed; far away parts difficult to integrate
Protruded: Laos- main body + finger extending out from country; finger hard to integrate
Fragmented: Philippines, Indonesia- unconnected area- problems w/boundary and integration
the Philippines
fragmented country w/centrifugal forces- result of ethnic and religious diversity; largest 2 islands at opposite ends- challenges of core area formation; plate tectonics runs E-W and N-S thru country; mountainous country; much instability in South, economy not as great as Thailand, Taiwan
-faces most severe array of centrifugal forces; large state w/17000 islands, 225 mil ppl, 300 diff ethnic groups, 250 langs;
-considerable natl. resource wealth; diverse agric.
-petroleum and natl gas deposits abound offshore; disposable wealth and globalization; uneven pop and wealth leads to high expectations and migration
very elongated; post-war energy directed at nation building (centripetal force); better chance of remaining single state than 2 diff ones; strong sense of ethnicity
Australian Realm (3 pts)
1)location matters- near Tropic of Cancer
2)size comparisons - larger than continental US
3)population: 20 mil (NC + SC + VA combined) = 7% of US pop
relatively empty country
Australia's climate
B(desert); C(temperate); A(tropical in north); most of Australia is dry and can't support population; less than 10 in. of rain; only eastern margin gets most rain- can suit pop
Austalia's water resources:
key to sparse pop
1)are irregular in location
2)sporadic timing
3)topographic importance- The Great Dividing Range btwn land and ocean "outback"
4)The Great Artesian Basin- btwn mtns and high plateaus in west; Artesian water - natl occurring spring- water trapped btwn 2 less permeable layers-carried to more permeable layer (aquifers)
Australia's country settlement:
more urban than US; peripheral, plural, urbanized; 60% of pop live in: Sydney, Melbourne, Perth, Adelaide, Brisbane
Sydney: world scale harbor and city - size of Chicago
Melbourne- Sydney's rival for urban supremacy
Australia's mineral basis
rich w/coal, iron ore, gold, nickel- but still low pop density

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