Glossary of General Chemistry I

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Physical material of the universe- anything that has a mass and occupies space
Cannot be decomposed into simpler substances
The basic building blocks of matter; the smallest units ofan element that can combine with other elments
Two or more atoms are joined together in specific shapes
States of Matter
Gas, liquid, or solid
Has a distinct volume independent of its contaner but has no specific shape
Has no fixed volume or shape
Has a definite shape and volume
Pure Substance
Matter thatas distinct properties and a composition that doesn't vary from sample to sample.
Substances composed of twoor more elements
combinateions of two or more substances in which each substance retains its own chemical identity
Law of Constant Composition
The observaion that the elemental composition of a pure compound is always the same
Homogenous mixtures
Physical Properties
Properties that can be measured without changing the identity and composition of the substance.
Chemical Properties
Properties hat describe the way a substance may change or reat to form other substances
Intensive Properties
Propeties that do not depend on the amount of the sample being examined.
Extensive Properties
Properties of substances that depend on the quantity of the sample and include measurements of mass and volume.
Physical Changes
A change in which a substance changes its physical appearance, but not its composition.
Changes of State
Physical changes from different states (for example: liquid to solid)
Chemical Changes
Changes nwhich a substance is transformed into a chemically different substance.
Metric System
The units of measurement used for scientific measurements.
Ameasure of how closely individual measurements agree with one another
How closely individual measurements agree with the correct value
Conversion Factor
A fraction whose numerator and denominator are the same quantity expressed in different units
Scientific Method
A dynamic process used to answe questions about our physical world
Subatomic particles
Comprise atoms; some are charged
Cathode rays
Their behavior in magnetic and electrical fields led to the discovery of the electron
The spontaneos emission of radiation by atoms
The dense, positively charged center of a atom
Positively charged subatomic particle
Neutral subatomic particle
Negatively charged subatomic particle
Atomic Number
The number of protons
Atoms of a given element that differ in the number of nuetrons, and consequently in mass
Mass Number
Total number of protons plue neutrons in the atom
An atom of a specific isotope
Atomic Weight
Average atomic mass of each element
Periodic Table
The arrangelment of elements in order of increasing atomic number
The elements in a column of the periodic table
Metallic Elements
All the elements on the lef side and in the middle of the periodic table
An assembly of two or moe atoms tightly bound together
Diatomic Molecule
A molecule that is made up of two atoms
Molecular Formulas
Chemical formulas tha indicate the actual numbers and types of atoms in a molecule
Empirical Formulas
Chemical formulas that give only the relative number of atoms of each type in a molecule
Structural Formula
Shows which atoms are attached to which within the molecule
A charged particle
An ion with a positive charge
An ion with a negative charge
Ionic Compound
A compound that contains both positively and negatively charged ions
Chemical Nomenclature
The naming of substances
Organic Chemistry
The sudy of compounds of carbon
Organic compounds only containing carbon and hydrogren
The study of the quantitative relationships between chemical formulas and chemical equations
Law of Conservation of Mass
The total mass of the products of a chemical reacton is the same as the total mass of the reactants.
Chemical Equation
Shows the equal numbers of atoms of each element oneach side of the equation
Combination Reactions
Two reactants combine to form one product
Decomposition Reaction
A single reactant forms two or more products
Combustion Reaction
A reaction in which a hydrocarbon reacts with oxygen to form carbon dioxide and water.
Formula Weight
Weight of the compound that equals the sum of the atomic weighs of the atoms in its formula
Avogradro's number of formula units of that substanc
Avogadro's Number
6.02 x 10^23
Limiting Reactant
The reactant that is completey consumed in a reaction
Theoretical Yield
The quantity of product calculated to form when all of the limiting reagent reacts
Aqueous Solutions
Solutions in which water is the dissolving medium
The component of the solution that is in the greater quantity
All other components of a solution
Any substance whose aqueos soluton contains ions
Any substance that forms a solution contaiing no ions
Strong Electrolytes
Those electrolytes that are present in solution entirely as ions
Weak Electrolytes
Those electrolytes that are present partly as molecules
Precipitation reactions
Those in which an insoluble product forms
An insoluble product
The amount of a substnc that dissolves in a given quantity of solvent
Metahesis reactions
Reaction such as precipitation reaction, in which cations and annions appear to exchange partners
Moleclar equation
Used when the complete chemical formulas of all reactants and products are used
Complete Ionic Equation
Shows all dissolved strong electrolytes as their component ions
Net Ionic Equation
An equation in which those ions that go through te reaction unchanged are omitted
Proton donors
Proton acceptors
The loss of electrons by a substance
The gain of electrons by a substance
Displacement Reactions
The redox reactions between metals and acides and between metals and salts
Activity Series
A list of metals arranged in order of decreasing ease of oxidation
The number of moles of solute per liter of solution
Combine a solution on known concentration with a solution of unknown concentration
The study of energy and its transformations
The transformations of enrgy- especially heat- during chemical reactions
Kinetic Energy
Energy due to the motion of the object
Kintetic Energy
Energy due to the motion of the object
Potential Enrgy
Energy that an object possesses by virtue of its position relative to other objects
The quantity of energy necessary to increase the temperateure of 1g of water by 1 degree C
Specific amount of matter
Everything outside of a system
Energy expanded to move an object against a force
The enrgy that is transferred from a hotter object to a colder one
The capacity to do work or transfer heat
Interal energy
The sum of all the kinetic and potential energies of its component parts
First Law of Thermodynamics
The change in the internal system of a system is the sum of the heat transferred into or out of the system and the work, done on or by the system
Process in which the system absorbs heatfrom the surroundings
Process in which the system releases heat to the surroundings
Pressure-volume work
Performed when a gas is produced or consumed in a chemical reaction occuring at constant pressure
Enthalpy of reaction
The enthalpy of the products minus the enthalpy of the reactants
Measures the temperature change accompanying a process
Heat Capacity
The amount of heat required to raise its temperature by I degree kelvin
Molar Heat Capacity
The heat capacity of one mole of a pure substance
Specific het
The heat capacity of one gram of a substance
Bomb Calorimeer
Used to measure the heat evolved in combustion reactions
Hess's Law
If a reaction is carried out in aseries of stems, the change in heat for the reaction will be equal tothe sum of enthalpy changes for the steps.
Enthalpy of Formation
The enthalpy change for the reaction in which the substance is formed from its constituent elements
Standard Enthapy
Enthalpy change when all reactants and productes are at 1 atm pressure and a specific temperature
Standard Enthalpy of Formation
The chang in enthalpy for the reaction that forms 1 mol of the substance from its elements with all reactants and products at 1 atm pressure and usually 298 K
Electronic Structure
Describes the energies and arrangement of electrons around the atom.
Quantum of Energy
The minimum amount of radiant energy that an object can gain or lose
Planck's Constant
h= 6.63 x 10^-34 J-s
Photoelectric Effect
The emission of electrons from metal surfaces from light
Produced by a dispersion of radiation into its component wavelengths
Continuous Spectrum
If a sepctrum contains all wavelengths
Line Spectrum
If a spectrum only contains specific wavelengths
Ground State
The lowest energy of a hydrogen atom
Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle
There is an inheret limit to the accuracy with which the position of momentum of a particle can be measured simultaneously.
Wave functions
Mathematical functions that describe the behavior of the electron in the quantum mechanical model of the hydrogen atom

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