Glossary of General Biology Semester 1 Exam Review

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The metric unit of volume
For ease of understanding, scientists report measurements using
the metric system
Whether applications of science to everyday life are considered good, bad, right, or wrong comes under the category of
Counts or measurements are examples of data produced by
quantative research
This is used in an experiment, to test the effect of the independent variable
the control group
In an experiment we form ___________ based on the analysis of data collected in a controlled experiment.
This is a possible explanation for a scientific question
This is a piece of technology that scientist use to make small details of an object visible.
Biologists generally form hypotheses using _______________reasoning.
How do scientists discover a problem or situation that needs to be explained.
by observing the world around them
The idea that there has been a gradual change in the characteristics of species over time
Living things adjust to a stimulus by a reaction called a(n)
Living things change during their lives through _____.
growth and development
All living things _____ to make more living things.
Living things adapt to their surroundings by _____.
maintaining a steady environment (homeostasis)
responding to other organisms
Making adjustments to non-living factors in the environment
The study of standards for what is right and what is wrong is called
The information gathered from experiments is called _____.
A structured procedure for collecting information to test a hypothesis is a(n) _____.
The application of science to the needs and problems of society is _____.
The part of an experiment in which all conditions are kept the same is the _____.
The steps commonly used by scientists in gathering information to test hypotheses and solve problems are called _____.
scientific method
A testable explanation for a question or problem is a(n) _____.
Because it is often difficult to gather numerical data, _____ research is used.
_____ research is usually based on numerical measurements.
The living and nonliving factors in an organism's surroundings
Any structure, behavior, or internal process that enables an organism to better survive in an environment
An organism's tendency to maintain a stable internal environment
The series of changes that an organism undergoes during its lifetime
The process whereby an organism produces more of its own kind
Over time, gradual changes in structures, behaviors, and internal processes of organisms result in diversity of species.
The first carbon compounds that scientists studied were called _____ compounds because they came from living organisms.
How many electrons can a carbon atom share?
What is an example of a chemical reaction?
buning paper
cooking an egg
Write the formula for 4 different chemical compound.
This cannot be done in this program. You need to know the formula for water, carbon dioxide, oxygen and glucose
The nucleus of an atom contains _____.
protons and neutrons
Electrons move about the nucleus of an atom in regions called _____.
electron clouds
What are the basic building blocks of proteins?
amino acids
Carbon-12, carbon-13, and carbon-14 are _____.
The total number of atoms in a molecule of sucrose.
This program cannot show the formula. Write the formula and determine the number of atoms.
Diffusion continues until there is no _____.
concentration gradient
Brownian motion is evidence of _____.
random motion of molecules
Diffusion continues until there is _____.
dynamic equilibrium
An atom of fluorine has nine electrons. Its second energy level has _____.
seven electrons
Glucose and fructose, have the same chemical fromula how are they different?
The arrangement of atoms the is different.
The various enzymes in our bodies are _____.
Which of the organic compounds can be polymers?
nucleic acids
Which organic compounds contain high energy bonds that release large amounts of energy when they are broken?
lipids and carbohydrates
Which type of organisms do not have cell walls?
Folded membranes are an advantage to a cell because _____.
cell processes can be more efficient

the membranes provide a large surface area

the membranes form interconnected compartments
All living things are made up of _____.
What are the main ideas of the cell theory?
all organisms are composed of cells

the cell is the basic unit of organization of organisms

all cells come from preexisting cells
The scientist who first described living cells as seen through a simple microscope was _____.
van Leeuwenhoek
One advantage of electron microscopes over light microscopes is their _____.
higher magnification
If a cell contains a nucleus, it must be a(n) _____.
eukaryotic cell
In a chloroplast, the stacks of membranous sacs are called _____.
Because cells have a watery environment both inside and outside, the polar ends of the phospholipids in the plasma membrane form ____ layers
The fluid mosaic model describes a structure with ____.
polar layers on both inside and outside
A cell's contents would be the same as its surrounds, were it not for ____.
selective permeability
A plasma membrane is made up of a(n) _____.
lipid bilayer
Cell structures that contain digestive enzymes
In a cell, the sites of protein synthesis
Organelles where molecules are broken down to release energy
The system of foleded membranes that modify proteins and send them to their appropriate destinations.
Golgi apparatus
System of highly folded membranes where cellular chemical reactions occur.
Endoplasmic Reticulum
Short, numerous, hairlike projections used for locomotion
Long hair-like projections used for locomotion
Central membrane bound structure that contains DNA
Chlorophyll containing organelle that captures light
Membrane bound organelle used for temporary storage of materials
Water moves into a cell placed in a(n) _____ solution.
If cells are placed in a strong sugar solution, water will _____.
pass from the cells to the sugar solution
A cell moves particles from a region of lesser concentration to a region of greater concentration by _____.
active transport
If a cell is placed in salt water, water leaves the cell by _____.
List 3 types of passive transport?
facilitated diffusion
The structure most responsible for maintaining cell homeostasis is the _____.
plasma membrane
List 3 things that can cause cancer.
environmental influences
UV radiation
A gene is a segment of DNA that controls the production of _____.
A cell's progress from phase to phase during the cell cycle is controlled by ____________.
a series of enzymes
If the sides of a cell double in length, its volume increases by _____ times.
Why a cell's size is limited?
Volume increases faster than surface area.

Homeostasis is disrupted by a cell that is too large.
What are the main parts of the cell cycle?
interphase - normal cellular work

Mitosis - nuclear division
When people move from one country to another, their cancer rates follow the pattern of _____.
The country where they live
What happens in prophase?
tighter coiling of the chromosomes

breaking down of the nuclear envelope

disappearing of the nucleolus
Unlike plant cells, animal cells contain _____.
The longest phase of the cell cycle is _____.
A chromatid is attached to a spindle fiber by the _____.
Levels of organization from simplest to most complex.
organ system
movement of particles from an area of higher concentration to one of lower concentration
continuous movement of particles but no overall change in concentration
dynamic equilibrium
release of wastes or cell products from inside to outside a cell
a cell engulfs particles and brings them into the cytoplasm
diffusion of water molecules through a selectively permeable membrane
The main energy-trapping molecule in plants is _____.
Energy from sunlight is trapped by chlorophyll located in the _____.
thylakoid membranes
Chlorophyll traps _____ from sunlight.
A green pigment that traps energy from sunlight is _____.
Energy is released from ATP when the bond is broken between _____.
two phosphate groups
Organisms need a way of storing energy because _____.
a cell can't always immediately use all the energy it gets
In order to move molecules in your kidneys, your body needs _____.
Kidneys use energy to move molecules and ions in order to keep the blood chemically balanced. This process is an example of cells using energy to _____.
maintain homeostasis
Write the equation for photosynthesis.
This cannot be done in this program.
Cells store energy when _____.
a third phosphate group is bonded to an ADP molecule to make ATP
The energy in glucose cannot be released by _____.
photosynthesis - Photosynthesis makes glucose it cannot break glucose
Leaves appear green because the green portion of the light that strikes them is _____.
Some bacteria that are adapted to live without oxygen combine carbon dioxide and hydrogen to produce _____.

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