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Glossary of GENERAL CHEM

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colligative properties
physical properties - usually of dilute solutions.

only depend on #particles, it doesn't matter what those particles are.
4 basic colligative properties
-Freezing point depression
-Boiling point elevation
-Osmotic pressure
-Vapor-pressure lowering
2 types Electrochemical reactions
1. Spontaneous reactions that produce electrical energy

2. Nonspontaneous rctions that produce chemical change.
conservation of charge
charge cannot be created or destroyed.
oxidation
loss of electrons
reduction
gain of electrons
oxidation # of free elements
0

elements like N2, P4, S8, He
Oxidation number of Hydrogen:
When counterion is less electronegative, H is - (NaH, CaH2)

When counterion is more electronegative, H is + (HF, HCl)
2 types electrochemical cells:
Galvanic (voltaic)

Electrolytic
Galvanic cells
aka, voltaic.
Type of reaction that occurs in
Voltaic cell:
Electrolytic cell:
Spontaneous.

Nonspontaneous.
Anode
site of Oxidation

vowels go together
Cathode
Site of reduction

Consonants go together
electrochemical cell diagram rules
nutshell:
anode |anode soln||cathode soln |cathode
most prominent characteristic of electrolytic cell reaction type:
it is nonspontaneous, so requires energy input.
Faraday
amount of charge contained in a mole of electrons.

96,487 Coulombs/mol e- = one faraday
electrode charge designations in
-Voltaic cell
-Electrolytic cell
Voltaic: anode is negative, cathode is positive.

Electrolytic: anions go to anode -its positive, cations go to cathode -its negative.

Both are still same in that Cathode is Red site, Anode is Oxid site.

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