Glossary of GA8-7-06

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Unicate Process
area on cervical vertebrae prone to bony growths such as osteophytes that can impinge spinal nerve adjacent to it
Central Line
the introduction of a catheter into a vein and extending it to the central part of the body (the heart)
Borders of the Posterior Triange of the neck
Inferior-Middle 1/3 of clavicle
Contents of Posterior Triangle of Neck
Veins-external jugular and subclavian

Arteries-subclavian, transverse cervical, suprascapular, occipital

Nerves-spinal accessor, great auricular, transverse cervical, supraclavicular

Inferior belly of omohyoid
dense connective tissue that surrounds muscles and is found in between muscles
Floor muscles of Posterior Triangle of Neck
Anterior scalene
Middle scalene
Posterior scalene
Levator scapulae (with spinal accessory nerve crossing it)
Splenius capitus
What nerve supplies SCM?
spinal accessory (CN XI)
This nerve also supplies trapezius.
Spasm of SCM
muscle of facial expression
-Found in superficial fascia of neck
Prevertebral Fascia
-forms the facial floor of posterior triangle of neck
Transverse cervical vein
-tributary of subclavian vein
-runs with transverse cervical artery
Suprascapular vein
-tributary of subclavian vein
-runs with suprascapular artery
What nerve is the most iatrogenically injured?
-spinal accessory nerve
-often injured taking biopsy of lymph nodes
Internal Jugular Vein
drains the upper head
Subclavian vein
drains the brachium or upper limb
Right brachiocephalic vein
formed by union of IJV and subclavian vein
3 Branches off Aortic Arch (in sequence)
1. Brachiocephalic artery or trunk--> gives rise to right subclavian and right common carotid

2. Left common carotid artery

3. Left subclavian artery
Branches of Subclavian Artery
1. Vertebral Arteries
2. Thyrocervical Trunk (Inferior thyroid artery, transverse cervical artery, suprascapular arteries)
3 Parts of Subclavian (as divided by anterior scalene)
1st part = proximal to anterior scalen

2nd part = posterior to anterior scalene

3rd part = distal/lateral to anterior scalene
Thyrocervical Trunk
-branch off proximal part of the subclavian artery
-gives rise to transverse cervical and a suprascapular artery
3 Parts of Axillary Artery (as divided by pectoralis minor)
1st part = proximal to pectoralis minor

2nd part = posterior to pectoralis minor

3rd part = distal/lateral to pectoralis minor
Ventral rami in cervical region
like in between ribs --> called "intercostal nerves"
Cervical Plexus
-Formed by ventral rami C1-C4
-5 Parts (Phrenic nerve, 4 cutaneous nerves [greater auricular, lesser occipital, transverse cervical, supraclavicular], sensory or proprioceptive contributions of spinal accessory nerve)
Phrenic Nerve
-part of cervical plexus
-arises from C3,C4, C5 (3-4-5, keeps the diaphragm alive)
-innervates respiratory diaphragm
-runs across anterior surface of SCM
-can be crushed to alleviate chronic hiccups
-approached surgically through posterior triangle of neck
Nerve Point
-lies at junction between superior 1/3 and inferior 2/3 on posterior border of SCM
-cutaneous and spinal accessory nerves pass into the posterior triangle here
4 cutaneous branches of cervical plexus
1. greater auricular
2. lesser occipital
3. transverse cervical
4. supraclavicular
Borders of Axilla
Medial = serratus anterior
Posterior = subscapularis
Anterior = pectoralis major/minor
Lateral = intertubercular groove
Contents of Axilla
-Subclavian artery
-Subclavian vein
-Brachial plexus
-Apex of lung
Brachial Plexus
-Formed from spinal nerves C5-T1
-5 roots (ventral rami of C5-T1)
-3 Trunks (upper, middle, lower)
-6 Divisions (3 anterior, 3 posterior)
-3 Cords
-6 Terminal Branches giving rise to 5 Terminal nerves (Musculocutaneous, Axillary, Radial, Median, Ulnar)

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