Glossary of Fluids and Electrolytes Made IE - Balancing Fluids
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- The most obvious and life-threatening problems are seen when?
- dehydration decreases the plasma volume
- Dehydration results in?
- fluid volume deficit
- Define isotonic dehydration?
- water and dissolved electrolytes are lost in equal proportions
- Define hypertonic dehydration?
- water loss is greater than electrolyte loss
- Define hypotonic dehydration?
- electrolyte loss is greater than water loss
- What happens to circulating blood volume in isotonic dehydration?
- *circulating blood volume decreases (hypovolemia) and leads to inadequate tissue perfusion
*loss of plasma volume causes problems
- In hypotonic dehydration, what is the relationship between plasma, interstitial fluid, and cells?
- fluid moves out of plasma and interstitial space and into cells, causing cells to swell
- In hypertonic dehydration, what is the relationship between plasma, interstial fluid, and cells?
- fluid moves out of cells and into interstitial spaces and plasma, causing cells to shrink
- Common causes of hypertonic dehydration include?
- excessive sweating
early-stage renal failure
excessive sodium bicarbonate
impaired motor function
- Common causes of hypotonic dehydration include?
- chronic illness
chronic renal failure
excessive fluid replacement
- Common causes of isotonic dehydration?
- Cardiovascular effects of dehydration?
- increased pulse rate
thready pulse quality
decreased blood pressure
flat neck and hand veins in
diminished peripheral pulses
- Respiratory effects of dehydration?
- increased repiratory rate
increased depth of
- Neuromuscular effects of dehydration?
- decreased cns activity
(lethargy to coma)
- Renal effects of dehydration?
- decreased urine output
increased urine specific
- Integumentary effects of dehydration?
- skin dry and scaly
turgor poor, tenting present
mouth dry and fissured,
pastelike coating present
- Gastrointestinal effects of dehydration?
diminished bowel sounds
- Hypotonic dehydration can result in?
- skeletal muscle weakness
- Hypertonic dehydration can result in?
- hyperactive deep tendon
increased sensation of thirst
- ___________ __________ area of an infant is greater than that of an adult relative to their respective _________ so infants ________ more _______from their skin than adults do and are at higher risk for ____________.
- Body surface
- Normal daily output and intake is about?
- 2600 ml
- What is the daily output for
- 600 ml
- What is the daily output for lungs?
- 400 ml
(200 for each side)
- What is the daily output for kidneys (urine)?
- 1500 ml
- What is the daily output for intestines (feces)?
- 100 ml
- Daily total intake of liquids is?
- 1500 ml
- Daily total intake of solid foods is?
- 800 ml
- Daily total intake of water of oxidation?
- 300 ml
- Examples of sensible losses are? They are so deemed because they are measurable.
- Examples of insensible losses because they can't be measured are?
- Define extracellular?
- interstitial and intravascular spaces
- Which structures separate intracellular fluids from extracellular fluids?
- capillary walls and cell membranes
- In an adult, the total amount of intracellular fluid averages ____ of the person's body weight or about _____ Liters
- The total amount of extracellar fluid averages ____ of the person's body weight or about _____ Liters.
- In adults, interstitial fluid (surrounds cells accounts for about ____ of extracellular fluid.
- In adults, intravascular (or plasma) accounts for about ____ of extracellular fluid.
- Transcellular fluids are other fluids besides extra and intracellular fluids and are located in which places?
- cerebrospinal column
- About ______ of the body weight of a full-term neonate is water.
- About _____ of the body weight of a premature infant is water.
- In a typical 154 lb lean adult male, about _____ of body weight is water.
- _________ cells hold much of the body's water while _____ cells contain very little water.
- The body's fluids are found in these 3 types of solutions?
- _________ _________ is considered isotonic because the concentration of ________
in the solution nearly equals the concentration of ________ in the blood.
- Normal saline
- Fluid imbalances occur in the elderly population because?
- their skeletal muscle mass declines.
(Skeletal muscle cells hold lots of water. The elderly are more prone to get fat cells which does not hold water.)
- After age 60, water content drops to about ______
- About _____ of body's total fluid volume is made up of plasma and remains stable through life.
- Define hypotonic solution?
- The first solution has a lower SOLUTE concentration than the second solution, so the fluid is going to flow to the second solution.
(So the first solution is hypotonic to the second solution.)
- Half-normal saline is considered ________ because the concentration of sodium is lower than the concentration in patient's blood.
- Define hypertonic solution?
- The first solution has a higher SOLUTE concentration than the second solution, so the fluid is going to flow to the first solution. So the first solution if hypertonic to the second solution.)
- A solution of dextrose 5% in NS is considered ______ to patient's blood?
(because the concentration of solutes in the NS is greater than the solutes in patient's blood.
- If a hypotonic fluid is given to a patient, it may cause too much fluid to move from the _________ into the ___________, and the __________will swell.
- If a hypertonic solution is given to a patient, it may cause too much fluid to be pulled from ______ into the ___________, and the cells may __________.
- Define diffusion?
- SOLUTES move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration by passive transport, because no energy is used.
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