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Glossary of Fitness Terminology

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Name the Health-Related Fitness Components (5)
Cardiovascular fitness
Muscular Strength
Muscular Endurance
Flexibility
Body-Composition
Cardiovascular fitness
the ability of the body to provide oxygen to the muscles
Muscular strength
the ability of a muscle group to apply a maximal force against a resistance one time
Muscular endurance
ability to repeat a muscle movement over a period of time
body composition
percentage of body fat to lean body mass
flexibility
range of motion about a joint
flexibility - dynamic
fluid, easy to reach, repetitive movement (warm up or cool down)
flexibility - static stretching
slightly light tension (hold it 10-20 seconds)
flexibility - pnf
combines isometric contraction with a static stretch
principles of training
specificity, overload, progression
principles of training - specificity
selecting specific exercsies to develop specific fitness components
principles of training - overload
doing more than you normally do (frequency intensity time)
principles of training - progression
increasing overload as your body adapts to it
how do you calculate a target heart rate zone for a 17 year old studnet whose resting heart rate is 60. use the karvonen formula
(220 - 17) - 60 =143
143 x .60 = 85.8 + 60 = 145.8
143 x .90 = 128.7 + 60 = 188.7
skeletal muscle
attached to bone and are made up of 75% water and 25% protein
joint
connection between two bones (if it is more mobile, it is less stable)
flexion
decreases a joint angle
extension
increases a joint angle
ligament
connective tissue that holds bones together
tendon
anchors muscle to bone
concentric
when a muscle contracts by shortening or pulling
eccentric
when a muscle contracts by lenghtening
isometric
contracting forces are equal to that of resistance, muscle neither shortens or lengthens (no movement)
isotonic
a muscle contraction against a constant resistance that results in movement (free weights and certain machines)(movement, eccentric or concentric)
isokinetic
constant speed. contraction of a muscle performed ata constant velocity. external resistance is alterred or varied while performing this exercise.(contracts and shortens at constant rate of speed)
can muscles independently lengthen
no - they can only legnethn by contracting the opposing muscles or by applying an outside force
atrophy
decrease in muscle size
hypertrophy
increase inmuscle size
muscle roles - agonist
prime mover, muscle most involved
antagonist
the muscle which opposes the primary mover
stabilizers
hole or fix a joint or part while movers produce movement
neutralizers
muscle which contract to prevent unwanted actions
planes of the body - supine
lying face up
planes of the body - prone
lying face down
planes of the body - frontal
divides body into front and back halves
planes of the body - median
divides the body down the middle into left and right halves
horizontal
divides the body horizontall into upper and lower halves
adduction
movement of a body partr toward the midline of the body
abduction
movement of a body part away from the midline of the body
define reistance training
also known as weight training. focuses on alignment, position and stabilization/control of muscles to oppose the muscles against a weight. it improves the endurance and strength of muslces
variables of pragram design - INTESNITy
amount of resistance used
variables of pragram design - REPETITION
completion of a single, movement o the body part being exercised
variables of pragram design - SET
group of repetitions
TEMPO
speed at which repetitions are performed
RECOVERY
as the time under tesnion increases, recovery ratio decreases
periodization
planned na dorganized variety (chanigng workouts)

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