Glossary of Final Review Cards
Other Decks By This User
- What is Ionization energy?
- the amount of energy needed to remove an outer electron from a specific atom or ion ints ground state and in the gas state
- What is electron affinity?
- the energy emitted upon the addition of an electron to an atom or group of atoms while in the gas phase.
- How do we know a reaction is exothermic or endothermic?
- the energy is released or absorbed
- When do you do redox problems?
- you look at both reactants and products to figure out who gained and lost electrons.
- WHAT ARE THE FIVE RULES FOR ASSIGNING OXIDATION NUMBERS?
- 1)SIMPLE IONS HAVE AN OXIDATION # = TO THEIR CHG
3)OXYGENS OX # 1S-2
4)THE SUM OF THE OX # IN A POLYATOMIC ION MUST = THE TOTAL CHG OF THE POLYAT ION AND THE SUM OF A P.A. AND THE COMPOUND MUST = 0
5)WHEN SOLVING FOR OX #'S DO THE ATOMS YOU KNOW FIRST THEN SOLVE FOR THE UNKNOWN
- WHAT KIND OF ATOMS ARE HELD TOGETHER BY ATTRACTION B/W OPPOSITLY CHARGED IONS
- IONIC CMPDS
- WHAT KIND OF ATOMS ARE HELD TOGETHER BY SHARED ELECTRONS?
- COVALENT COMPOUNDS
- WHAT IS COMPOSED OF ONLY ONE ATOM?
- AN ELEMENT
- WHAT IS THE AVG DISTANCE B/W TWO BONDED NUCLEI?
- BOND LENGTH
- WHAT KIND OF BOND HOLDS ATOMS TOGETHER?
- CHEMICAL BONDS
- WHAT ARE CHARACTERISTICS OF IONIC BONDS?
- E'- TRANSFERRED
ATTR BY OPP IONS
IONS ARE FULLY CHGED
ELECTRONEGATIVITY IS HIGH TUG OF WAR
- WHAT ARE CHARACTERISTICS OF COVALENT BONDS?
- HELD TOGETHER BY SHARED ELECTRONS
E- ARE SHARED
EN DIFF IS LOW TUG OF WAR
NON METALS AND NONMETALS
DELTA +OR DELTA-
PARTIALCHG ON POLAR ATOMS
- WHY ARE PARTIAL BONDS ESTABLISHED?
- BECAUSE ATOMS IN THE BOND HAVE DIFF EN VALUES EN IS THE STRENGTH OF THE ATOM AND HOW MUCH PULL IT HAS ON THE SHARED E- IN A BOND
- Why does an atom with a higher en diff get a partial chg?
- it pulls the e- toward itself
- what is the degree of polarity?
- range of polarity in bonds is the diff of strength or EN the more polar a bond is the closer it is to ionic
- the _____ polar bonds are the ______similar to they are nonpolar bonds.
- what was the purpos of the chem bonds lab?
- to determine the mp, solubility, conductivity and determine if the substance si ionic or covalent
- What is solubility?
- the abilty of one substance to dissolve in another
- What is a solvent?
- a dissolving agent
- what is a solute?
- a substance that has been dissolved
- How do substances dissolve?
- substances dissolve in each other when they are highly attracted to one another.
- what are the six factors that afffect solubility?
- temperature,amount, agitation, duration, polarity and the type of substance
- What are the char of a ionic bond?
insoluble in ETOH and HEX
soluble inH2 O
high EN diff
- what are char of covalent bonds?
- not conductive
two types: polar and nonpolar
soluble in ETOH and HEX
low en diff
can exist as solid liquid and gas
weakest of all
- What are multiple bonds?
- in covalent molecules atoms can share more than one pair of e-, 2 or 3 pairs
- What is a double bond?
- two atoms that share two pairs of e-
drawn with two dashes, ea dash reps one bond
- What is a molecule?
- has a positive and a neg end
- What is a dipole?
- a molecule in which one end has a partial pos chg and the other end is partially neg; a molecule that contains more than one polar bond cancels the other out
- How do molecules and dipoles differ?
- they melt at lower temps than ionic molecular substances and are more likely ot ne solids, liquid or gases
- What is a polar molecule?
- a molecule that has oppositly chg ends
- What is a nonpolar molecule?
- amolecule wiht the same chg on both ends
- What makes substances soluble and unsoluble?
- the attr btwn molecules must be present to make the substances dissolve
- What are IMFs?
- forces btwn molecules
- What holds molecules together?
- bonds that hold two atoms together and are permanent
- What are London Dispersion Forces?
- They occur in nonpolar molecules(no pull)
nonpolar molecules have one chg throughout the molecule.
- What is an instantaneous dipole?
- is formed when opp chg form on a molecules for an instant and attract the molecules return to orginal state and repel
- THE IMFS SHORT STYLE
- LONDON DISPERSION
DIPOLEOPP CHG ON MOL POLAR
HYDROGEN ATTR, REPEL INST
- WHAT IS A hydrogen bond?
- hydrogen atoms attr to partially neg atoms in the opp molecules for a small moment in time hydrogen atms for an instant bond with the neg atom
- Why do hydrogen bonds occur?
- because it has only one proton and e- when it forms a bond its e- is spending much more time with the other atom
- What imf is the strongest?
- dipole dipole
- When do imfs occur?
- london forces- by themselves btwn themselves
dipole dipole- occur in polar molecules the stronger the polar the stronger the dipole
h bonds occur in polar molecules with hydr
- How do you calculate if a molecule is polar or nonpolar?
- clculate the en diff
draw delta symbols
look at overal distribution of delta symbols
- What is resonance?
- when multiple bonds switch sides within the molecule
- What are the prefixes for polyatomic ions?
- mono, di, tri, tetra,penta, hexa, hepta, octa, nona, deca
- What are the rules for polyatomic ion lewis structure?
- all other structure steps apply
when we have a neg chg p.a ion we add e-, to the valence
- What is a chemical reaction?
- a chg in the distribution or electrons as the reactants combine to form ions.
- What are the rules for naming rules for inorganic cmpds?
- use prefixes on root to tell # of atoms in cmpd
if mon in the first word leave it out
use in second word
the first element in formula is the first to name
- What is organic chemistry?
- the study of life and organic compounds
- What are organic compounds?
- they are produced by living things to support life; must be carbon containing but not all carbon containing cmpds are organic
some carbon containing cmpds are organic
i.g. CO2 and CO-oxides
CO3 2 - carbonates
- What are the three types of organic cmpds?
- alkanes, alkenes and alkynes
- What is an alkane?
- all contain only C-C carbon single bonds ending in ane
ig octane C8 H18, hexane C6 H14
- What is an alkene?
- all end in ene
must contain one double bond
- What are alkynes?
- end in yne
must contain at least one triple bond
- what is the diff btwn saturated and unsatured fats?
- saturated fats are coverdin hydrogen
unsaturated fats are hydrocarbons with multiple bonds
- What are functional groups?
- they are attached to hydrocarbons and are groups of atoms that give phys& chem properties to organic groups
- What are aldehydes?
- O double bonded to H with R
- What are Ketones?
HIGH MELTING POINTS AND BOILING PTS
- What is a carboxylic acid?
- weak, similar to alcohol
naming- add ic to acid
eg acetic acid
occurs in analgesics
very polar high boiling pt
exhibit hydrogen bonding
not changed in h2o
R O H
- What are ethers?
- R- O-R
alkyl alkyl ether
form peroxides- explosive
- What are alkines?
- R- NH2
absorbed through siki
- What are esters?
- carboxylic acid+ alcohol
O double bonded to Carbon and Oxygen
add oate naming
smell and taste pleasant
- What are alcohols?
name add -ol
low boiling/ freezing---> water soluble
You must Login or Register to add cards