Glossary of Final Exam Chem. Notes
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- Anything that has mass and occupies space.
- The measurement of the amount of matter in an object.
- a meaurement of the gravitational force acting on an object.
- How do we determine the mass of something?
- We weigh it.
- The capacity for doing work.
- What are examples of energy?
- Physical Properties-
- Characteristics that can be observed or measured without changing the composition of matter.
- What are examples of Physical Properties?
-Liquid vs. Solid
- Chemical Properties-
- Characteristics of matter when attempting to change it into something new.
- What are examples of chemical Properties?
- -The ability for paper to burn
- Physical Changes-
- Alterations matters undergoes without changing the composition.
- What are examples of Physical Changes?
- -Changing the siz of a piece of paper (cutting it, crumpling it)
- Chemical Changes-
- Alterations matter undergoes that involve changes in composition.
- What are examples of Chemical Changes?
- -Burning of paper
-Release of new material (gas)
- Scientific Model-
- explanation for observed behavior in nature.
- Model of Matter-
- Designed to explain observed properties of gases.
- What are the small particles called in which matter is composed of?
- Smallest unit of a pure substance that has the properties of that substance.
- Limit of chemical subdivision for matter.
- Monoatomic Molecule-
- Contains only one atom.
- Polyatomic Molecules-
- Contains 2 or more atoms.
- Homoatomic Molecules-
- Contains only 1 kind or type of atom
- Heteroatomic Molecules-
- Contains 2 or more kind or type of atom
- Pure substance consisting of the same molecules
- What are examples of an element?
- Pure substance consisting of more than one molecule
- What is an example of a compound?
- -Carbon Dioxide O-C-O
- What type of molecules are Elements?
- Either Monoatomic or Polyatomic; always homoatomic
- What type of molecules are compounds?
- Always Polyatomic; always heteroatomic
- List the differences between a Mixture and a Pure Substance-
-Properties vary with composition
-Unique set of physical properties
-Serperably by physical methods into 2 or more pure substances
-Not seperable into simpler substances by physical methods.
- Homogeneous Matter-
- Has uniform physical and chemical properties throughout.
- homogeneous mixture of 2 or more pure substances
- Heterogeneous Matter-
- has appearance and properties that are not the same throughout.
- Examples of a Heterogeneous Mixture-
- Examples of a Homogeneous Mixture-
- -Sugar Water
- What is the basic unit for length?
- Meter, m
- 1 km= ?m
10 dcm= ?m
100 cm= ?m
1000 mm= ?m
- 1000 m
- What is the formula for area?
- Area= Length x Width
- What is the formula for volume?
- Volume= Length x Length x Length
- 1 mL= ?cc
- 1 cc
- 1 teaspoon= ?mL
- 5 mL
- What is the basic unit for mass?
- Kiogram, Kg
- 1 Kg= ?lbs.
1 Kg= ?g
1 g= ?mg
- 2.2 lbs
- What is the formula for converting Celsius to Farenheit?
- C= 100/180 (F-32)
- What is the formula for converting Farenheit to Celsius?
- F= 9/5 (C) + 32
- What is the basic unit for energy?
- Joule, (j)
- What is the formula for converting celsius to kelvin?
- C= K-273
- What is the formula for converting kelving to celsius?
- K= C+273
- 1 cal of energy is needed to do what?
- heat 1g or water by 1 degree C
- What is the formula for calculating percent?
- Percent= Part/Total X 100
- What is the formula for calculating density?
- Density= Mass/Volume
- Charge of a Proton-
- Positively Charged
- Charge of a Neutron-
- Charge of an Electron-
- Negatively Charged
- What is the atomic number?
- The number of protons
- What is the Mass Number?
- The sum of the neutrons and protons
- Atoms with the same atomic number but different mass #'s
- In a neutral atom, the number of protons = What?
- the number of electrons
- The number of protons is the what?
- atomic number
- Where is the number of protons, or atomic number located on an element?
- Lower left corner
- The sum of the neurtons and protons is what?
- the mass number of an element
- Atomic Weight-
- relative masses of atoms
- Molecular Weights-
- derived from the atomic weights and the molecular formula
- What is Avogadro's Number and what does it represent?
- -6.02 x 10 23
-Represents one mole
- How is chemical behavior determine
- primarily by the number of electrons.
- Periodic Law-
- When elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic numbers, elements with similar properites will occur at regular intervals.
- Bohr Atom-
- -Electrons orbit the nucleus in defined orbits of specific energies.
-Electrons can change orbits by absorbing or releasing energy.
- Atomic Orbitals-
- volumes of space in which electrons of the same energy move.
- Atomic orbitals occur in groups called?
- Subshells occur in groups called?
- Hund's Rule-
- electrons will not join other electrons in an orbital if an empty orbital of the same energy is available.
- Pauli Exclusion Principle-
- only electrons spinning in opposite directions can simultaneously occupyt the same orbital.
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