Glossary of Femal Reproductive Physiology (c'tnd)
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- What 3 disorders occur in female reproduction?
- 1. Premenstrual syndrome
3. Turner's syndrome.
- What is PMS in general?
- a group of symptoms related to the menstrual cycle.
- How is PMS classified?
- based on the severity of symptoms:
-Premenstrual tension (light)
-PMDysphoric Disorder (worst)
- What is "hyperprolactinemia"?
- a tumor of the pituitary lactotrophs - causes increased prolactin production!
- what is the effect of increased prolactin?
- Prl increase inhibits FSH and LH secretion; therefore no follicle development, menses, and galactose levels areweird.
- What's the main problem in Turner's syndrome?
- SOME of the cells are missing or have a damaged X chromosome.
- What are the results of Turner syndrome?
- How can Turner syndrome be treated?
- with growth hormone, estrogen, and progesterone treatments.
- Can a turner patient become pregnant?
- Yes - with donated oocytes!
- When do Estrogen and Progesterone effects dominate: -Proliferative phase or -Secretory Phase?
- Estrogen = proliferative
Progesterone = secretory
- When in the menstrual cycle does body temp increase?
- during the secretory phase; when progesterone is higher.
That's how you know when to be fertilized to get pregnant.
- How does Estrogen influence the cervical mucus?
- It makes it get increasingly watery, thin, and elastic during the proliferative phase, for maximum ease of sperm movement.
- what happens to the cervical mucus during the secretory phase?
- It becomes thick and sticky, to impede sperm movement and protect against infection
- What makes the mucus become sticky?
- Progesterone - during the secretory phase.
- When is cilia/smooth muscle most active, and why?
- During the proliferative phase; to enhance meeting of egg and sperm.
- What changes in the endometrial lining enhance the survival of an embryo?
- Glycogen vacuoles are implanted, to provide energy for the baby!
- How long can each survive:
-Sperm in uterus
When should intercourse occur?
- Sperm - 4 to 6 days
Eggs - 1 to 2 days
Sex: 5 days before or 1 day after ovulation.
- How can you detect if ovulation has occured?
- -Urinary LH levels
-Cervix mucus characteristics (stretchable, painful)
- How does the egg get from the ovary to the fallopian tube?
- Fimbriae sweep it up and put it in.
- Where does fertilization occur?
- IN the fallopian tube; if it waited for the egg to get to the uterus, it would die cuz it takes 4 days.
- how does sperm get into the cervix?
How does it get to fallop tube?
- by sheer force of ejaculation.
- What has to happen to sperm before they can possibly fertilize an ova?
- What is capacitation?
- increasing the motility of the sperm with bicarbonate and progesterone.
- What is the first step in the acrosome reaction of sperm w/ ova?
- Push through Cumulus and bind to receptor proteins in the zona pellucida (the protein around the oocyte).
- What happens when sperm bind the receptors in Zona pellucida?
- They release enzymes that digest their way into the zona pellucida.
- How does fertilization occur?
- All the little sperms compete but only the first one through the zona pellucida gets to enter and fertilize.
- What 2 mechanisms prevent polyspermy (more than one sperm fertilizing the egg)?
- 1. The membrane potential of the oocyte changes; inhibits other bindings to the zona pellucida.
2. The egg secretes enzymes that harden and inactivate the receptors for sperm.
- when does implantation of the fertilized ovum occur?
- six to eight days after fertilization
- how do identcal twins develop?
- if the embryo seperates into 2 independend cell masses - it should remain ONE, with divisions withinthe one cell mass.
- what is the embryo called after it travels down the fallopian tube and gets implanted in the uterus?
- what does the blastocyst shed before implantation in the endometrium?
- the zona pellucida
- what provides the initial nutrition for the embryo?
- the endometrium.
- what structure provides exchange of nutritents/hormones/growth factors from mom -> baby?
- chorionic villi
- What hormones are involved in pregnancy?
Human Chorionic Gonadotropin
- What is HCG?
- similar to LH; maintains the corpus luteum, producd by embryo/placenta.
- When in pregnancy are estrogen and progesterone released?
- only about 2 months; then corpus luteum regresses
- what secretes estradiol/progest when the corpus luteum regresses?
- the placenta.
- What hormones does the placenta produce during pregnancy?
-human placental lactogen
- What is HPL?
- hormone released by placenta to stimulate breast growth
- What two hormones regulate milk production/secretion
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