Glossary of Eyes, Ears, and Nose
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- What are the 4 usual defense mechanisms for the eyes?
- 1. Constant bath
2. Lysozomal, sIgA secretions
4. 7 epithelial layers make bacterial penetration hard.
- What 4 eye infections mostly present with eye specimens?
- 1. Conjunctivitis
4. Periocular infections
- What is conjunctivitis, and what symptoms associate with it?
- Inflammed conjunctiva; redness, itching, discharge.
- What is Keratitis, and what symptoms are associated w/ it?
- Corneal inflammation; usually from trauma, pain and impaired vision.
- What is endophalmitis?
What 2 things usually cause it?
What symptom accompanies it?
- -Any intraocular inflammation.
-Trauma and systemic infection.
-Pain when moving eyes.
- What type of specimen usually comes with an eye infection?
- Endophalmitis: ASPIRATE
Any other: swab
- How do you process an eye specimen?
- Inoculate BA and CA
For endophthalmitis, also inoculate anaerobic and thio broth; and do direct smear.
- What are normal flora in the eyes?
- Very small numbers of
-Coag neg staphs
- What usually causes Conjunctivitis?
- -Haemophilus aegyptius/influenz.
- What usually causes keratitis?
- -S. aureus
- What pathogen usually causes periocular infections?
- Staph aureus.
- What mostly causes endophthalmitis?
- S. aureus
Post op: staph epi/aureus, gnb, Streps.
- What are the usual defense mechanisms of the ears?
- 1. Skin and anatomy
2. Respiratory epithelium
- What is Otitis externa?
Who usually gets it, and what symptoms are seen?
- An external ear infection up to the eardrum.
-Mostly in kids, pain and may have a discharge.
- What is Otitis media?
- An middle ear infection - in the Eustachian tube.
- Why do kids often get otitis media?
- Because they have small eustachian tubes.
- What is the course of infection in otitis media?
- 1. Small Eustachian tube.
2. Gets blocked by lymphoid tissue during upper resp infctn.
3. Negative pressure created, allows bacteria to enter.
4. WBC infiltration causes fluid pressure on eardrum.
- What symptoms accompany otitis media?
- What specimens are recieved from
- Externa: swab
- What plate media should be inoculated for both?
- BA, CA, and possibly fungal if requested.
- What are normal flora in the outer ears?
- What are external ear pathogens?
- -Strep group A
-Molds (aspergillus niger)
- What are 3 classical causes of otitis media?
- -Strep pneumonia
- What are the normal defense mechanisms of the nose?
- -sIgA, lysozyme
- What infection usually presents with a nose specimen?
- What usually causes the sinusitis?
- Secondary to a cold, or viral upper resp infection.
- How do colds/viruses cause sinusitis infections?
- -Close off the sinus openings
-Normal flora infect sinuses.
- What symptoms present with sinusitis?
- Headache, facial pain, drainage down the pharynx.
- What should be inoculated for a nose specimen?
- Swab: BA, CA, CNA, maybe LEMB.
Sinus aspirate: also anaerobic media.
- Would you do a direct smear of a nose specien?
- Swab - no; lots of normal flora.
Aspirate - yes; sinuses should be sterile.
- What are normal flora AND possible pathogens in the nose specimen?
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