Glossary of Extra Terms

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Advanced Organizer
relevant learning activities or info presented before reading begins
ability to tell one sound from another
important for developing phonemic awareness
Back Ground Knowledge
knowledge already possed

student will read more fluently and comprehend better with BGK
ability to take separate sounds and blend them into a single word or syllable
Comprehension Strategies
techniques students can use to better understand reading
(note-taking, outlining, self-monitoring, story mapping, etc)
Concepts About Print
the idea that oral language can be presented in a print format
Analyzing words by identifying sounds.
The removal of a sound(pheoneme) from a word. Requires maipulation of phonemes in words and is considered more difficult than other types of phoneme awareness
A gliding vowel sound represented by 2 adjacent vowels.
Ex. oil - oi, boy - oy
Directed listening thinking activity
assesses and instructs students
(listening, predicting, and confirming predictions is emphasized
A pair of letters with the first letter making a long vowel sound and the second letter being silent
Ex. Peach, read, paint
Emergent literacy
awakening of a students readin ability
(have well developed oral lang skills, understand print, phonemically aware)
study of the origins and history of words
Literal Comprehension
1st level of comprehension
(understand literal text but can't draw conclusions
Inferential Comprehension
2nd level
should be able to draw conclusions that are not explicitly stated
Evaluative Comprehension
3rd and highest level
involves understanding and effectively critiqing text
Final Position
The end of a word
Frustration level
level at which student cannot accurately recognize/ comprehend more that 70% of text
Graphonic Cues
process of "sounding out" a word
Guided Reading
enables the teacher and small group of students to read through a book, stopping frequently to question/discuss
Independent Level
level at which student can accurately recognize/comprehend well enough - no teacher help needed
Informal Assessments
measuring tools that can be sneaked into activities
can be structured or unstructured
Ex. kid watching, checklist
Independent Reading
reading that is done alone
crucial to developing reading skills
Informal Reading Inventory -
assessment tool presents student w/ reading passage and tests comprehension with questions
Initial position
The first part of the word
Irregular Sight Words
Common word that can't be sounded out
Language Experience Approach
joins reading and writing instruction
use own experience & words to develop reading, writing, speaking abilities
Listening Comprehension
level at which student can understand text that is read aloud
described by grade level
Literary Analysis
argument or point of view about a reading text
technique in which students relate the main incidents of a text they read
Medial Position
middle portion of word
smallest unit of language that has meaning

Ex. stomping - both stomp and ing are morpheme
study of word structure
Schemata (plural)
brains chunck of information about a certain topic

Cat - what you know about cat
Semantic Cues
using knowledge about a subject to identify an unkown word in a text
Open Syllable
syllable that does not end in a consonant sound but a vowel sound
Ex. jumbo - the 2nd syllable is open
the study of spellin patterns
vowel sound that is neither long or short

Ex. "o" in sailor
ability to break words into separate phonemes (sounds)
smallest unit of sound
may be a letter or group of letters
Ex. knife has 3 phonemes
Story Map
graphic presentation of major plot points & themes from story
(improves comp & teaches story structure)
the replacement of one phoneme in a word w/ another
Ex. "c" for "r" in rat forms cat
breaking up of a word into syllables
Systematic Instruction
instruction plan that moves from simple concepts to more complex ones
Think Aloud
verbalizing thought processes that a proficient reader might use when reading and writing
occurs when words begin with the same vowel sound

Ex. An ant ate another apple.
Leveled pot
appropriate grade level books
Bound Morpheme
affix added to base word to change case, gender, #, tense
2 text structured
Constructing Meaning
Current phrase for teaching reading
2 literary strategies to activate prior knowledge
prediction (children evidence prior knowledge)

Contextual Redefinition
using context to determine word meaning
Consonant Diagraphs
2 consecutive consonants that represent 1 speech sound

Ex. "ph" = f
ability to process words in a text in the correct order

includes left to right word progression and return sweep
Expository Text
teaches reader to explain & discuss, or convince reader of a point
text is oriented around a subject
little or no dialogue
purpose is to provide facts/opinions
Funtional Reading
reading of instructions, recipes, coupons, ads, sign, etc
Formal Assesment
done under controlled and regulated conditions

Ex. standardized test
Children own words when: (3 things)
1. find words on their own
2. use words in their own writing
3. appear in literature that interest them
Direct Teaching
teacher announces to class that this strategy will be taught
What is a quartle on a test?
division of the percentiles into 4 segments each of which is called a quartile
Word Web
helps build vocab and makes connections
Return Sweep
pointing at words and moving from left to right
Word Study
* going to dictionary at 1 or 2 times a day
*collect and share words of interest
* vocab work sheets from basal or commercial vocab book
Stop and Think Strategy
student will ask himself if what he has read makes sense
Help to compare and contrast
* Word Web
*Semantic Map
*Semantic features
*Analysis grid
Self Correct
Key principle of the running record
* child goes back & corrects errors made in running record
words that can be correctly pronounced and read aloud
second language learners
have positive attitudes
Oddity Task
Recognize which sound is odd in a series of like sounds

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