Glossary of Exploring Psychology by Myers Ch. 1 (used for PsycGRE prep)

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Established the first psychology laboratory at the University of Leipzig, Germany
Wilhelm Wundt
The first woman to receive a psychology Ph.D.; synthesized animal behavior research in "The Animal Mind"
Margaret Floy Washburn
Used introspection to search for the mind's structural elements.
Edward Bradford Titchener
First woman to be admitted to and finish requirements for a Harvard Ph.D. She was denied her degree, but offered one from an honorary degree from an undergraduate school for women which she denied.
Mary Whiton Calkins
The science of behavior and mental processes
The longstanding controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors.
Nature-nurture issue
A leading "behaviorist" who rejected introspection and studied how consequences shape behavior
B.F. Skinner
Another behaviorist who championed psychology as the science of behavior
John B. Watson
The way in which the body and brain enable emotions, memories, and sensory experiences
How the natural selection of traits promotes the perpetuation of one's genes
This area focuses on how much our genes and our environment influence our individual differences
Behavior genetics Perspective
This area focuses on how behavior springs from unconscious drives and conflicts
Psychodynamic Perspective
This area focuses on how we learn observable responses
Behavioral Perspective
This area focuses on how we encode, process, store, and retrieve information
Cognitive perspective
This area focuses on how behavior and thinking vary across situations and cultures.
Social-Cultural Perspective
The science of psychology was born in December 1879, when a psychologist and his students measured the time lag betwen people's hearing a ball hit a platform and their pressing a key. The psychologist who ran this experiment and established the first psy
Wilhelm Wundt
A popular psychology textbook was written in 1890. Its famous author was _______
William James
The definition of psychology has changed several times since the late 1800's. In the early 20th century, _______ redefined psychology as the "science of observable behavior".
James Watson
Psychology is now defined as the science of behavior and mental processes. The perspective in psychology that focuses on how behavior and thought differ from situation to situation and from culture to culture is the ____________ perspective
Social-cultural perspective
The tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have forseen it.
Hindsight bias
Thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. Rather it examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions
Critical thinking
An explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes and predicts observations
A testable prediction, often implied by a theory
A statement of the procedures (operations) used to define research variables
Operational definition
Repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances
An observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles
Case study
A technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of people, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of them
All the cases in a group, from which samples may be drawn for a study
A sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion.
Random sample
A statistical measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other
Correlation coefficient
Research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors (independent variables) to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process (dependent variable).
an inert substance or condition that may be administered instead of a presumed active agent, such as a drug, to see if it triggers the effects believed to characterize the active agent.
an experimental procedure in which both the research participants and the research staff are ignorant (blind) about whether the research participants have received the treatment or a placebo.
Double blind procedure
Any effect on behavior caused by a placebo
Placebo effect
The condition of an experiment that exposes participants to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable.
Experimental condition
The condition of an experiment that contrasts with the experimental condition and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of treatment.
Control Condition
Assigning participants to experimental and control conditions by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between those assigned to different groups
Random Assignment
The experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied.
Independent Variable
The experimental factor - in psychology, the behavior or mental process - that is being measured; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable.
Dependent variable
The enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next.

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