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Glossary of Exploring Medical Language

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micro-

(prefix)
small
puerper/o

(combining form)
childbirth
pseud/o

(combining form)
false
chori/o

(combining form)
chorion

The outermost of the two female membranes - the amnion is the inner most - which together surround the embryo
lact/o

(combining form)
milk
peri

(prefix)
surrounding (outer)
embry/o

(combining form)
embryo, to be full
-partum

(suffix)
childbirth, labor
prim/i

(combining form)
first
par/o

(combining form)
bear, give birth to, labor, childbirth
part/o

(combining form)
bear, give birth to, labor, childbirth
amni/o

(combining form)
amnion

A thin membrane surrounding the fetus during pregnancy
esophag/o

(combining form)
esophogus

The tube that connects the pharynx (throat) with the stomach
pre-

(prefix)
before
cervic/o

(combining form)
cervix

The lower narrow part of the uterus forming a canal into the vagina which leads to the outside of the body
gravid/o

(combining form)
pregnancy
-tocia

(suffix)
birth, labor
culd/o

(combining form)
cul-de-sac

A blind pouch or cavirty that is closed on one end
-rrhexis

(suffix)
rupture
pylor/o

(combining form)
pylorus, pyloric sphincter

The outlet of the stomach
colp/o

(combining form)
vagina
nat/o

(combining form)
birth
spermat/o

(combining form)
spermatozoa, sperm
gynec/o

(combining form)
woman
perine/o

(combining form)
perineum

The area between the anus and the scrotum (in men) or the vulva (in women)
-amnios

(suffix)
amnion, amniotic fluid
splen/o

(combining form)
spleen
metr/o, metr/i

(combining form)
uterus
cardi/o

(combining form)
heart
arche/o

(combining form)
first, beginning
mamm/o

(combining form)
breast
ile/o

(combining form)
ileum

The lowest part of the small intestine, located beyond the duodenum and jejunum, just before the large intestine (the colon)
plasm/o

(combining form)
plasma

The liquid part of the blood and lymphatic fluid, which makes up about half of its volume
phleb/o

(combining form)
vein
lymph/o

(combining form)
An almost colorless fluid that travels through vessels called lymphatics in the lymphatic system and carries cells that help fight infection and disease
valv/o

(combining form)
valve
electr/o

(combining form)
electricity, electrical activity
thym/o

(combining form)
thymus gland

A lymphoid organ situated in the center of the upper chest just behind the sternum (breastbone)
colon/o

(combining form)
colon

The part of the large intestine that runs from the cecum to the rectum as a long hollow tube
arteri/o

(combining form)
artery
peritone/o

(combining form)
peritoneum

The membrane that lines the abdominal cavity and covers most of the abdominal organs
thromb/o

(combining form)
clot
-sclerosis

(suffix)
hardening
-penia

(suffix)
abnormal reduction in number
nulli-

(prefix)
none
gastr/o

(combining form)
stomach
ech/o

(combining form)
sound
tachy-

(prefix)
fast, rapid
brady-

(prefix)
slow
-graph

(suffix)
instrument used to record
post-

(prefix)
after
arther/o

(combining form)
yellowish, fatty plaque
therm/o

(combining form)
heat
atri/o

(combining form)
atrium

One of the two smaller chambers of the heart
pelv/i, pelv/o

(combining form)
pelvis, pelvic bone

The lower part of the abdomen located between the hip bones
multi-

(prefix)
many
valvul/o

(combining form)
valve
isch/o

(combining form)
deficiency, blockage
-salpinx

(suffix)
fallopian tube
ventricul/o

(combinging form)
ventricle

A chamber of an organ
cephal/o

(combining form)
head
omphal/o

(combining form)
umbilicus, navel
fet/o, fet/i

(combining form)
fetus, unborn child
ven/o

(combining form)
vein
rect/o

(combining form)
rectum

The last 6 to 8 inches of the large intestine
-poiesis

(suffix)
formation
angi/o

(combining form)
vessel
-atresia

(suffix)
absence of a normal opening, occlusion, closure
-ial

(suffix)
pertaining to
lapar/o

(combining form)
abdomen
col/o

(combining form)
colon

The part of the large intestine that runs from the cecum to the rectum as a long hollow tube
sial/o

(combining form)
saliva
diverticul/o

(combining form)
diverticulum

A small bulging sac pushing outward from the colon wall
palat/o

(combining form)
palate

The roof of the mouth. The front portion is bony (hard palate), and the back portion is muscular (soft palate)
aort/o

(combining form)
aorta

The largest artery in the body
-apheresis

(suffix)
removal
-ac

(suffix)
pertaining to
cheil/o

(combining form)
lip
duoden/o

(combining form)
duodenum

The first part of the small intestine
choledoch/o

(combining form)
common bile duct
appendic/o

(combining form)
appendix

A small outpouching from the beginning of the large intestine (the ascending colon)
or/o

(combining form)
mouth
chol/e

(combining form)
gall, bile
gloss/o

(combining form)
tongue
sigmoid/o

(combining form)
sigmoid colon

the lower colon (the lower portion of the large bowel)
gingiv/o

(combining form)
gum
abdomin/o

(combining form)
abdomen

The belly, that part of the body that contains all of the structures between the chest and the pelvis
hepat/o

(combining form)
liver
herni/o

(combining form)
hernia

A general term referring to a protrusion of a tissue through the wall of the cavity in which it is normally contained
cec/o

(combining form)
cecum

The cecum (also spelled caecum), the first portion of the large bowel, situated in the lower right quadrant of the abdomen
enter/o

(combining form)
intestines
an/o

(combining form)
anus

The opening of the rectum to the outside of the body
jejun/o

(combining form)
jejunum

Part of the small intestine. It is half-way down the small intestine between its duodenum and ileum sections
antr/o

(combining form)
antrum

A general term for cavity or chamber which may have specific meaning in reference certain organs or sites in the body
uvul/o

(combining form)
uvula

The small piece of soft tissue that can be seen dangling down from the soft palate over the back of the tongue
lingu/o

(combining form)
tongue
hemi-

(prefix)
half
celi/o

(combining form)
abdomen

The belly, that part of the body that contains all of the structures between the chest and the pelvis
-odynia

(suffix)
pain
-pepsia

(suffix)
digestion
dipl/o

(combining form)
two, double
-crit

(suffix)
to separate
proct/o

(combining form)
rectum

The last 6 to 8 inches of the large intestine
ton/o

(combining form)
tension, pressure
cholangi/o

(combining form)
bile duct
polyp/o

(combining form)
small growth
pancreat/o

(combining form)
pancreas

A fish-shaped spongy grayish-pink organ about 6 inches long that stretches across the back of the abdomen, behind the stomach
core/o

(combining form)
pupil

The opening of the iris
stomat/o

(combining form)
mouth
retin/o

(combining form)
retina

The retina is the nerve layer that lines the back of the eye, senses light, and creates impulses that travel through the optic nerve to the brain
coren/o

(combining form)
cornea

The clear front window of the eye that transmits and focuses light into the eye
-plegia

(suffix)
paralysis
blephar/o

(combining form)
eyelid
phot/o

(combining form)
light
lacrim/o

(combining form)
tear duct, tear
bi-, bin-

(prefix)
two
-phobia

(suffix)
abnormal fear of or aversion to specific objects of things
dacry/o

(combining form)
tear, tear duct
iri/o

(combining form)
iris

The iris is the circular, colored curtain of the eye
pupill/o

(combining form)
pupil

The opening of the iris
scler/o

(combining form)
sclera

The tough white outer coat over the eyeball that covers approximately the posterior five-sixths of its surface
cry/o

(combining form)
cold
cor/o

(combining form)
pupil
opt/o

(combining form)
vision
kerat/o

(combining form)
cornea

The clear front window of the eye that transmits and focuses light into the eye

Can also mean horny tissue
arthr/o

(combining form)
joint
-opia

(suffix)
vision (condition)
tympan/o

(combining form)
eardrum, middle ear
labyrinth/o

(combining form)
labyrinth, inner ear
irid/o

(combining form)
iris

The iris is the circular, colored curtain of the eye
ocul/o

(combining form)
eye
ophthalm/o

(combining form)
eye
oste/o

(combining form)
bone
lamin/o

(combining form)
lamina, thin flat plate or layer
myring/o

(combining form)
tympanic membrane (eardrum)
aur/i, aur/o

(combining form)
ear
mastoid/o

(combining form)
mastoid

The rounded protrusion of bone just behind the ear once thought to look like the breast
scoli/o

(combining form)
crooked, curved
ten/o

(combining form)
tendon

The tissue by which a muscle attaches to bone
clavicul/o

(combining form)
clavicle (collarbone)
tibi/o

(combining form)
tibia

The larger of the two bones in the leg (the smaller one being the fibula). The tibia is familiarly known as the shinbone
staped/o

(combining form)
stapes

A stirrup-shaped bone in the middle ear
stern/o

(combining form)
sternum (breastbone)

Anatomic name for the breast bone, the long flat bone in the upper middle of the front of the chest
lord/o

(combining form)
bent forward
sacr/o

(combining form)
sacrum

The large heavy bone at the base of the spine, which is made up of fused sacral vertebrae
conjunctiv/o

(combining form)
conjunctiva

A thin clear moist membrane that coats the inner surfaces of the eyelids and the outer surface of the eye
burs/o

(combining form)
bursa (cavity)
myos/o

(combining form)
muscle
lumb/o

(combining form)
loin (lumbar region of the spine)

Referring to the 5 lumbar vertebrae which are situated below the thoracic vertebrae and above the sacral vertebrae in the spinal column
acou/o

(combining form)
hearing
ot/o

(combining form)
ear
supra-

(prefix)
above
cost/o

(combining form)
rib
maxill/o

(combining form)
maxilla (upper jawbone)
vertebr/o

(combining form)
vertebra

A vertebra is one of 33 bony segments that form the spinal column of humans
femor/o

(combining form)
femur (upper leg bone)
myel/o

(combining form)
spinal cord (myel/o also means bone marrow)
carp/o

(combining form)
carpals (wrist bones)
-physis

(suffix)
growth
sym-

(prefix)
together, joined
syn-

(prefix)
together, joined
pub/o

(combining form)
pubis

The front center portion of the pelvis
tars/o

(combining form)
tarsals (ankle bones)
scapul/o

(combining form)
scapula (shoulder blade)
menisc/o

(combining form)
meniscus (cresent)
ili/o

(combining form)
ilium

The upper part of the bony pelvis which forms the receptacle for the head of the femur at the hip joint
fibul/o

(combining form)
fibula (lower leg bone)

The lateral (outside) and smaller of the two long bones in the lower leg between the knee and ankle
tendin/o

(combining form)
tendon

The tissue by which a muscle attaches to bone. A tendon is somewhat flexible, but fibrous and tough
clavic/o

(combining form)
clavicle (collarbone)
patell/o

(combining form)
patella (kneecap)
mandibul/o

(combining form)
mandible (lower jaw bone)
petr/o

(combining form)
stone
phalang/o

(combining form)
phalanges, finger or toe bones
audi/o

(combining form)
hearing
rachi/o

(combining form)
spine, vertebral column
kinesi/o

(combining form)
movement, motion
inter-

(prefix)
between
ischi/o

(combining form)
ischium

Bone making up the lower down back part of the pelvis
chondr/o

(combining form)
cartilage

Firm, rubbery tissue that cushions bones at joints
synovi/o

(combining form)
synovia, synovial membrane

The fluid that lubricates joints
tend/o

(combining form)
tendon
-clasia

(suffix)
break
kyph/o

(combining form)
hump
spondyl/o

(combining form)
vertebra
radi/o

(combining form)
radius (lower arm bone)
aponeur/o

(combining form)
A sheetlike fibrous membrane, resembling a flattened tendon, that serves as a fascia to bind muscles together or as a means of connecting muscle to bone
uln/o

(combining form)
ulna (lower arm bone)
crani/o

(combining form)
cranium, skull
humer/o

(combining form)
humerus (upper arm bone)
-asthenia

(suffix)
weakness
mon/o

(combining form)
one
gangli/o

(combining form)
ganglion

an aggregation of nerve cell bodies
cerebell/o

(combining form)
cerebellum

The portion of the brain in the back of the head between the cerebrum and the brain stem
ankyl/o

(combining form)
crooked, stiff, bent
disk/o

(combining form)
intervertebral disk

A pad of cartilage between two vertebrae that acts as a shock absorber
-clast

(suffix)
break
-clasis

(suffix)
break
dur/o

(combining form)
hard, dura mater

The outermost, toughest, and most fibrous of the three membranes (meninges) covering the brain and the spinal cord
psych/o

(combining form)
mind
quadr/i

(combining form)
four
ganglion/o

(combining form)
an aggregation of nerve cell bodies
-schisis

(suffix)
split, fissure

A cleft or groove. A fissure can be normal or abnormal
-desis

(suffix)
surgical fixation, fusion
esthesi/o

(combining form)
sensation, sensitivity, feeling
encephal/o

(combining form)
brain
mening/o, mening/i

(combining form)
meninges

The three membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord
cerebr/o

(combining form)
cerebrum, brain

The largest part of the brain
-iatrist

(suffix)
specialist, physician
-paresis

(suffix)
slight paralysis
phas/o

(combining form)
speech
phren/o

(combining form)
mind
-ictal

(suffix)
seizure, attack
-iatry

(suffix)
treatment, specialty
radicul/o

(combining form)
nerve root
radic/o

(combining form)
nerve root
calc/i

(combining form)
calcium
ment/o

(combining form)
mind
tetra-

(prefix)
four
poli/o

(combining form)
gray matter
adrenal/o

(combining form)
adrenal gland

One of a pair of small glands, each of which sits on top of one of the kidneys
kal/i

(combining form)
potassium
adren/o

(combining form)
adrenal gland

One of a pair of small glands, each of which sits on top of one of the kidneys
dips/o

(combining form)
thirst
endocrin/o

(combining form)
endocrine

Pertaining to hormones and the glands that make and secrete them into the bloodstream through which they travel to affect distant organs
rhiz/o

(combining form)
nerve root
aden/o

(combining form)
gland
thyroid/o

(combining form)
thyroid gland
thyr/o

(combining form)
thyroid gland

A gland that makes and stores hormones that help regulate the heart rate, blood pressure, body temperature, and the rate at which food is converted into energy
acr/o

(combining form)
extremities, height
parathyroid/o

(combining form)
parathyroid gland

A gland that regulates calcium, located behind the thyroid gland in the neck
natr/o

(combining form)
sodium
cortic/o

(combining form)
cortex

The outer portion of an organ
-drome

(suffix)
run, running
-ologist

(suffix)
one who studies and treats (specialist, physician)
-logy

(suffix)
study of
-stasis

(suffix)
control, stop, standing
-plasm

(suffix)
a growth, substance formation
-genesis

(suffix)
origin, cause
-gen

(suffix)
substance or agent that produces or causes
hist/o

(combining form)
tissue
chrom/o

(combining form)
color
lip/o

(combining form)
fat
cyan/o

(combining form)
blue
sarc/o

(combining form)
flesh, connective tissue
system/o

(combining form)
system
cyt/o

(combining form)
cell
path/o

(combining form)
disease
adenocarcinoma
cancerous tumor of glandular tissue
andenoma
tumor composed of glandular tissue
carcinoma
cancerous tumor
chloroma
tumor of green color
epithelioma
tumor composed of epithelium
fibroma
tumor composed of fiber
fibrosarcoma
malignant tumor composed of fiber
leiomyoma
tumor composed of smooth muscle
leiomyosarcoma
malignant tumor of smooth muscle
lipoma
tumor composed of fat
liposarcoma
malignant tumor of fat
melanocarcinoma
cancerous black tumor
melanoma
black tumor
myoma
tumor composed of muscle
neoplasm
new growth
neuroma
tumor composed to nerve
rhabdomyoma
tumor composed of striated muscle
rhabdomyoscarcoma
malignant tumor of striated muscle
sarcoma
tumor of connective tissue
cytogenic
producing cells
cytoid
resembling a cell
cytology
study of cells
cytoplasm
cell substance
dysplasia
abnormal development
epithelial
pertaining to the epithelium
erythrocyte
red blood cell
erythrocytosis
increase in number of red blood cells
histology
the study of tissue
hyperplasia
excessive development
hypoplasia
incomplete development
karyocyte
cell with a nucleus
karyoplasm
substance of a nucleus
leukocyte
white blood cell
leukocytosis
increase in the number of white blood cells
lipoid
resembling fat
myopathy
disease of the muscle
neuroid
resembling a nerve
somatic
pertaining to the body
somatogenic
originating in the body
somatopathy
disease of the body
somatoplasm
body substance
systemic
pertaining to a system
visceral
pertaining to internal organs

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