Glossary of Exam for Health Policy Class
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- 14th Amendment
- Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution is one of the post-Civil War amendments and it includes the Due Process and Equal Protection Clauses. It was proposed on June 13, 1866, and ratified on July 9, 1868.
- 9th Amendment
- The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.
- Lochner v. New York
- landmark decision in United States Supreme Court history, as it relates to both sex discrimination and labor laws. The case upheld Oregon state restrictions on the working hours of women as justified by the special state interest in protecting women's health.
- Skinner v. Oklahoma
- the United States Supreme Court ruling which held that compulsory sterilization could not be sentenced as a punishment for a crime.
- Griswold v. Connecticut
- a landmark case in which the Supreme Court of the United States ruled that the Constitution protected a right to privacy. The case involved a Connecticut law that prohibited the use of contraceptives. By a vote of 7-2, the Supreme Court invalidated the law on the grounds that it violated the "right to marital privacy."
- Bowers v. Hardwick
- a United States Supreme Court decision that upheld the constitutionality of a Georgia sodomy law that criminalized oral and anal sex in private between consenting adults. Seventeen years later the Supreme Court directly overruled Bowers in Lawrence v. Texas, 539 U.S. 558 (2003), and held that such laws are unconstitutional.
- Cruzan v. Director, Missouri Department of Public Health
- a United States Supreme Court case argued on December 6, 1989 and decided on June 25, 1990. In a 5-4 decision, the Court ruled in favor of the State of Missouri, saying that incompetent persons are not able to exercise the right to refuse medical treatment under the Due Process
- Buck v. Bell
- the United States Supreme Court ruling that upheld a statute instituting compulsory sterilization of the mentally retarded "for the protection and health of the state." It was largely seen as an endorsement of negative eugenics—the attempt to improve the human race by eliminating "defectives" from the gene pool.
- Planned Parenthood v. Casey
- a case decided by the Supreme Court of the United States in which the constitutionality of several Pennsylvania state regulations regarding abortion was challenged. The Court's lead plurality opinion upheld the right to have an abortion but lowered the standard for analyzing restrictions of that right, invalidating one regulation but upholding the others.
- Police Powers
- Police power is the power of a state to make laws and to use physical violence in order to coerce its subjects into obeying those laws. Thus, it is the most expansive power exercised by a government. States are widely regarded by lawyers and jurists as having an "inherent" right to police power, meaning that it doesn't have to be explicitly written into any basic law or constitutional or other foundational document.
- Karen Quinlan
- Her parents wanted to have her taken off the respirator that was sustaining her, but hospital officials refused. In 1976, the Quinlans took their case to the New Jersey Supreme Court, which sided with her parents in its decision. When she was taken off the respirator, Quinlan surprised many by continuing to breathe unaided, and was fed by artificial nutrition for nine more years. She died from pneumonia in 1985
- rests on the premise of treating sick persons with extremely diluted agents that - in undiluted doses are deemed to produce similar symptoms in a healthy individual. Its adherents and practitioners assert that the therapeutic potency of a remedy can be increased by serial dilution of the drug, combined with succussion or vigorous shaking.
- involves the use of water for soothing pains and treating diseases
- a school of medical philosophy and practice that seeks to improve health and treat disease chiefly
by assisting the body's innate capacity to recover from illness and injury. Naturopathic practice may include a broad array of different modalities, including manual therapy, homeopathy, hydrotherapy, herbalism, acupuncture, counselling, environmental medicine, aromatherapy, wholefoods, and so on.
- Miasma or Zymotic Theory
- Miasma is considered to be a poisonous vapor or mist that is filled with particles from decomposed matter (miasmata) that could cause illnesses and is identifiable by its nasty, foul smell (which, of course, came from the decomposed material).
- Germ Theory
- a theory that proposes that microorganisms are the cause of many diseases. Although highly controversial when first proposed, it is now a cornerstone of modern medicine and clinical microbiology, leading to such important innovations as antibiotics and hygienic practices.
- Supernatural Theory
- a theory that proposes that you get sick because of Supernatural reasons.
- Personal Behavior Theory
- a theory that your health is based on your personal vices.
- Salpingectomy refers to the surgical removal of a Fallopian tube.
- Comstock Laws
- an 1873 United States federal law that made it illegal to send any "obscene, lewd, or lascivious" materials through the mail. This included contraceptives.
- Margaret Sanger
- an American birth control activist, an advocate of certain aspects of eugenics, and the founder of the American Birth Control League (which eventually became Planned Parenthood). Initially meeting with fierce opposition to her ideas, Sanger gradually won the support of the public and the courts for a woman's right to decide how and when she will bear children. Though her tentative support of eugenics was less well received, Margaret Sanger was instrumental in opening the way to universal access to birth control.
- an integrated managed care organization, based in Oakland, California, founded in 1945 by industrialist Henry J. Kaiser and physician Sidney R. Garfield. Kaiser Permanente is a consortium of three distinct entities: Kaiser Foundation Health Plans, Kaiser Foundation Hospitals, and Permanente Medical Groups.
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