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Glossary of Exam 2 Law Enforcement and Police Roles

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Police Discretion Examples
1. offense seriousness
2. attitude of the suspect 3. postion and preference of the victim
4. relationship btw suspect and victim
5. evidence of the offense
6. race and gender
7. officer's support for law violated
8. presence of supervisory roles
Trait of Police personality, subculture
1. transforming effect
2. authoritarian personality
3. suspiciousness
4. conservatice
5. emphasis on loyalty
6. secretive about law enf.
7. courage
8. assertiveness
9. cynical
10. concern with danger and self-protection
Categories of Police Stress
1. intrainvdividual
2. interpersonal
3. organizational
4. environmental
3 communties that pose challenges to police
1. people who love police
2. people who hate police, the hate stare
3. people on the fence
neg consequences of police stress
-get sick
-general health decreaes with higher age beyond normal
-unusually high suicide rate
-spill over into family
-divorce
-doubly deviant
-PTSD
-alcohol/substance abuse
-escape painful memories
major issues: police racism, profiling
-race impt factor in decision to arrest
-AA suspects more likely to be stopped and arrested than w. but they are also more likeyly to be subjected to force
-poor police-minority relations
-miscommunication
-if community owuld not be in favor of the arrest
-victimless crimes, less enforcement
-AA stricter w/ AA
-degree of tolerance of an officer
warrant exceptions
1. consent searches
2. hot pursuit
3. plain view
4. inventory
5. K-9 alert
6. abandonment of property
7. open fields
8. protective sweep
9. border searches
10. administrative
11. public domain
searches of person w/o warrant
-Terry v. Ohio
- PLain Feel Doctrine
- Consent search
- DUI
-searches during booking, jailing
- inmate
- reasonable suspicion criminal acitvity is afoot
searches of auto w/o warrant
car is mobile, lead to evidence destruction
-prob cause stop car, no fishing
-crime about to, or has been, committed
- no authority to routinely stop cars
-consent search persuant to routine stop
-Carrol Doctrine
-unlocked containers
-lunge area
-sobriety check pts
-u-turns
KC Response Time Study
study showing that citizens take longer to report crimes to police than it takes police to respond
solvability factors
anything that can potentially affect the probability of successfully concluding the case, witnesses, physical evidence
crime scene
areas in which the crime actually took placed and/or evidence relating to the crime is found
discovery crimes
crimes that are discovered and/or reported long after the offense took place and the offender is gone, ex burglary
involvement crimes
crimes in which the police respond to the scene and the offender is still present and/or the crime remains in progress
clearance rate
the ratio of solved to reported crimes in a particular jurisdiction
preliminary investigation
duties performed by first uniformed officer on arrival at a crime scene, which includes determinding whether the offender is at the scene or in the area, responding to the civtim's needs, and ensuring the general safety of anyone in the immediate vicinity
contaminants
any elemt that can alter the quality of nature of evidence at a crime scene and thus impede the processes of association and reconstruction
reconstruction
when the police try to determine exactly what happened and by whom in a crime
primary scene
the site of the original crime
secondary scene
the subsequent scene of a crim after the primary crime scene
Locard exchange principle
states that it is impossible for anyone to enter a location without changing it in some way, either by bringing something to it or removing something from it, which is why offenders can be linked to a crime scene
chain of evidence
tbecareful documentation of the hanging of evidence involved in an investigation from the point of the preliminary investigation all the wya through to its ultimate presentation at trial
VICAP- Violent Criminal Apprehension Program
created by the FBI to help identify national homicide patterns. VICAP is a comprehensive database of solved and unsolved violent crimes that include significatnt details related to the crime scen, victim characterisitcs, and offender characteristics
circle of investigation
the pool of possible suspects in an inverstigation
nonsocial offender
an organized offender who is likely to meet hte classification of a psychopath
asocial offender
often referred to as a shcizoid or withdrawn personality type... commit spontaneous acts with little attention paid to physical evidence left behind
Iron law of Oligarchy
suggests that the formal organization of bureaucracies inevitably leads to oligarchy, in wich a small group of self-serving indiviudals seek to maintain their position of power
zero tolerance policing
when police officers are required to stop anyone they see committing such offenses and have little of no discretion as to whether or not to arrest
contempt of cop
the term often used withing the police culture to refer to the mistrust, attitude, and even hatred expressed by the community residents they are sworn to protect
thin blue line
the belief that only the police hold off the dangers of chaos and disvoer in socieyt, and thus are themselves often taunted by their mission in society
eustress
stress that is normal and good, even providing on the job motivation
dis-stress
stress that is outside of the normal range and very harmful over time
internal stressors
factors within a department that can be a source of difficulty
police-minority tension
poor relationships between the police and the community, often resulting from a highly publicized case of police corruption or brutality in a partticular neighborhood
racism
bias against racial minorities, resulting in their being treated more harshly than whites
external stressors
problems or factors outside of the pd that can cause stress of dis-equilibrium for police management
fundamental atriubtion errors
the tendency of some individuals to explain criminal behavior in terms of internal factors such as race or membership in a particular ethnic group, rather then by reference to external or situational factors, such as poverty
Wilsons' styles of policing
1. watchman style
2. legalistic style
3. service style
watchman style
the approach places great emphasis on order maintenance and individual officer discretion
legalistic style
emphasizes the improtance of law enforcement and maintaining clear and impartial legal standards for both the police and public alike
service style
where the police are primarily servants of the sommunity, with particular emphasis placed on maintaining good police-public relations and on the use of informal policing methods aimed at keeping offenders out of the cj system

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