Glossary of European History Midterm One

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By the end of the 16th Century, Europe was beginning to experience a decline in ________________ and a growing secularization in both the _____________________ worlds.
religious passions, political and intellectual
____________________ was considered by some as the turning point in the evolution of a modern state system in Europe.
The 17th Century
A response to the religious wars and other crises of the time was the __________ ___ ______. As rebellions died down, it became apparent that the privileged classes of society—the __________—remained in control, although the various states exhibited
yearning for order, aristocrats,
The most general trend saw an expansion of monarchical power as a stabilizing force; this has been called ____________ or ___________.
monarchy, absolutism
Absolutism was most evident in _______ during the reign of ____________, the perfect embodiment of an absolute monarch
France, Louis XIV
___________ reacted differently to domestic crises, and another system emerged where monarchs were ________ by the power of their _________________ ________________.
England, limited, representative assemblies
Another “_______ ____ ____” after the middle of the 16th century, when average temperatures fell, affected harvests and caused famines.
little ice age
Religion, especially the struggle between militant ____________ and militant __________, played an important role in the outbreak of the _______ ______ ____ (____-____), often called the “last of the ___________ _____.”
Catholicism, Calvinism, Thirty Years’ War, 1618, 1648, relgious wars
The conflict began in the German states as Europe’s major powers backed either the northern ___________ Union or the southern ___________ League. As the war progressed, __________ receded in importance, replaced by a dynastic struggle between the Frenc
Protestant, Catholic, religion, Bourbons, Spanish, Austrian Habsburgs
At the beginning of the seventeenth century, the ___________ ruler of the ___________, the Elector Palatine ___________ __, assumed the leadership in forming a league of German Protestant states called the Protestant Union.

To counteract it, t
Calvinist, Palatinate, Frederick IV, Duke Maximilian, Bavaria

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