Glossary of Envirothon Forestry 2
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- What is a boreal forest?
- Forests of high altitudes and steep slopes.
- What is a young forest?
- Results from disturbance or land-use change, range in age from 0-10 yrs
- What is a middle aged forest?
- trees of small diameter from 10-70 yrs, understory becomes more scarce, middle story produces more mast
- What is a mature forest?
- large diameter trees and diverse understory
- What are snags?
- standing dead or partially dead trees
- What are cavity trees or den trees?
- Live trees that have at least one nesting site.
- What is succession (biotic change)?
- the gradual and fairly predictable change of species that occupy and alter a site over time
- What is primary succession?
- An ecological succession that begins in an area where no life is present.
- What are primary species?
- in primary succession, the lichens and mosses that first colonize the site
- What are common animals in primary succession?
- seed eating birds and snakes
- What is a climax community (mature communitiy)?
- a relatively stable, long-lasting community reached in ecological sucession, usually determined by climate and soil type
- What is secondary succession?
- The pattern of change in an ecosystem where a community has previously existed (soil remains in place).
- What is an ecotone?
- An area where two ecosystems in different stages of succession meet.
- What is the edge effect?
- The greater variety of wildlife and greater population density found in an ecotone.
- What is ecology?
- the study of how living things interact with each other and with their nonliving environment
- What is the biotic portion of the forest?
- The trees, shrubs, wildflowers, ferns, other plants, fugi, mammals, birds, etc.
- What are producers?
- green plants that make their own food using the sun as the energy source
- What are consumers?
- animals that eat plants or other animals
- What are decomposers?
- break down the plant and animal matter to be nutrients essential for plant and animal growth
- What is symbiosis?
- A close association between different species usually over an extended period of time
- What is parasitism?
- A relationship between two species or organisms where one is hurt and one benefits from the relationship
- What is mutualism?
- A relationship between two species where both benefit from the relationship.
- What is commensalism?
- a relationship between two species where one benfits but the other one does not benefit nor is harmed
- What is hard mast?
- nuts and acorns
- What is biodiversity?
- Large variety of plant and animal species
- What are microecosystems?
- small areas that are part of a larger system with their own set of complex interactions occurring within them
- What is the abiotic portion of the forest ecosystem?
- the air, water, soil, sunlight, climate, and essential nutrients
- What is the photoperiod?
- day length
- What is respiration?
- the sugar made during photosynthesis is broken down with the use of oxygen to prduce energy, carbon dioxide, and water
- What are the six nutrients commonly recognized as necessary for life?
- C, H, O, Nitrogen, Phosphors, and Sulfur
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